Monthly Archive December 2014

Natural Teeth Whitening Tips That Can Change Your Life

We all have teeth but the difference is whiteness and the appearance of teeth varies for everybody. Though we can’t do much about the teeth style which was blessed but we can change teeth appearance. Many ignore the teeth color whether it’s light red or yellow or low whiten but we all notice the teeth color in other on first impression. Let’s check out some facts about teeth color how meaningful they are to others in first impression.

More than 70% of women judge a men based on his teeth – Survey

58% more chance of getting Job when your teeth whitens and looks nice – Kelton Research

teeth whitening tipsWhat else facts we need to understand how much white teeth can change your life. There are plenty of usual whitening methods like whitening toothpaste, mouth wash, and expensive treatments. But here are few tips and habits you should use and change to make teeth whitening.

Change Your Toothbrush:

Many who want their teeth whitening may do brushing twice or thrice but forget to take care about their brush. We have to change our brush every 3 months, or if your tooth brushe bristles bend and worn out.

Eat Vegetables:

Yes, we all know eating vegetables is good for your health. Eating nuts, raw carrots, apples, and cauliflower actually helps your teeth a lot. They will remove strains on your teeth and plaque that leads to cavities.

Coconut Oil:

HoHo! Just stop thinking yourself, Coconut Oil, yes it’s in everybody home at finger tips. But we don’t know how it helps our teeth. Rinsing your mouth with coconut oil will help in whitening teeth. Lauric acid in coconut oil can rid your plaque’s bacteria which makes the teeth yellow. Removing yellow color of teeth may not be completely possible with Coconut oil but it  will help in reducing yellow coloring and also act as preventer. Not only it promotes gum health and helps keep your breath fresh.

Dairy Products:

Dairy Products with minerals like Calcium and Phosphorus will make your teeth sparkling. Dairy Products like Cheese and Yoghurt will help in whitening your teeth. These will also help your teeth in keeping away from Cavities.

Lemon & Orange Peels

Lemon and Orange peels can be used to whiten your teeth. As these are natural fruits, there is no harm in trying them with little precaution. Don’t use the Orange and Lemon peels for longer time as they are acidic in nature which can damage the enamel of teeth. After using peels make sure to do oral cleaning with water.

Drink and Eat but Take Care:

We can’t change some habits easily, especially when you love drinking coffee or Juices or eating your favorite foods which  effects the color of teeth. Many don’t know that most of the juices can make their teeth turn in to Yellow. To keep your teeth whitening, Use Straw to drink cold beverage and juices. It is also recommended to floss and wash your mouth after eating a meal or some junk food. Doing so will keep your mouth and teeth safe.

These tips can be followed very easily instead of applying chemicals like Baking Soda, Hydrogen Per Oxide rinse to clean and whiten your teeth which needs extra precautions. Remember the simple tips and habits can keep your teeth whiten and healthy.

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tooth decay symptoms and treatment

Symptoms of Tooth Decay! Prevention Tips & Treatment Plans

Tooth decay also known as dental caries, carious lesion or cavities. Cavities are holes in the teeth due to bacterial activities. Tooth decay is a common dental problem.

tooth decay symptoms and treatmentSymptoms of Tooth Decay?

The signs and symptoms vary depending upon their extent and location. When a cavity is just beginning, you may not have any symptoms at all. As the decay gets larger, it may cause symptoms.

Earliest sign is the appearance of a chalky white spot on the surface of the tooth, indicating an area of demineralization of enamel. It can be stopped or reversed at this point enamel can repair itself by using minerals from saliva, fluoride from toothpaste or other sources.

As the lesion continues to demineralize, it can turn brown but will eventually turn into cavitation. Active decay is lighter in color and dull in appearance. When the decay has progressed enough to allow the bacteria to overwhelm the pulp tissue in the center of the tooth a tooth ache can result and the pain will become more constant Death of the pulp tissues and infection are common consequences. The tooth will no longer sensitive to hot or cold, but can be very tender to pressure.

Read What Cause Tooth Decay and How Risk it is ?

How to Prevent Tooth Decay?

  • Regular cleaning of the teeth
  • Use soft bristled tooth brush and follow proper tooth brushing technique
  • Regular flossing
  • Use fluoride containing toothpaste
  • Chewing sugar free gum after you have eaten may also help prevent tooth decay. When you chew gum the saliva production increases and it neutralizes the acid in your mouth before it can damage your teeth
  • See the label before buying general, high in sugar means more than 15gm of sugar for every 100gm of product and low in sugar means less than 5gm of sugar for every 100gm of product.
  • Avoid smoking and alcohol consumption
  • Cut down on sugary and starchy food and drinks, particularly between meals or within an hour of going to bed

How to Prevent Tooth Decay in Children?

  • Yours child’s diet is important in preventing a cavity. Put time limit between meals and snacks. This reduces the number of acid attacks on the teeth and gives teeth a chance to repair themselves.
  • Make sure your child does not eat or drink anything with sugar in it after bedtime tooth brushing. Saliva flow decreases during sleep. Without enough saliva, teeth are less able to repair themselves after an acid attack
  • Use fluoride toothpaste
  • Supervise young children when they are brushing
  • Ask your dentist about topical fluoride application
  • Dental sealants:-these are another good way to help avoid a cavity. Dental sealants are thin, plastic coatings painted on the chewing surfaces of the back teeth. Back teeth have uneven pits and grooves so that food and bacteria can get stuck and stay there a long time because toothbrush bristles can’t easily brush them away. Sealants cover these surfaces and form a barrier that protects teeth and prevent food and bacteria from getting trapped there. It,s best to get these teeth sealed as soon as they come in.
  • Take your child to the dentist for regular checkups
  • Bed time infant feeding:-don’t give babies bed time bottles filled with milk, juice or other sugar containing liquids

early-childhood-tooth-decayWhat is the Treatment Plan for Tooth Decay?

Fluoride treatment:- if your cavity is just getting started, a fluoride treatment may help to restore your tooth’s enamel. Professional fluoride treatment contains more fluoride than the amount found in tap water, toothpaste, rinses. Liquid, gel, foam or varnish that is brushed onto your teeth or placed in a small tray that fits over your teeth

Fillings:-the dentist will remove the carious structure of the tooth and fill the cavity with a restorative material such as silver amalgam, glass-ionomer cement, composits

Crowns:-crowns are preferred when the decay is extensive or the teeth are weak. Crowns are custom fitted covering that replaces entire your natural tooth crown. Different types of crowns are available such as gold, porcelain, porcelain fused to metal

Root canal:-when decay reaches the pulp, you need to undergo root canal treatment. Instead of extraction you can save your tooth by doing root canal. Pulp is removed from the canals and replaced with a filling. After the root canal treatment crown is given.

Extraction:-so severely decayed tooth that can’t be restored and must be removed.

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Tooth Decay

What Causes Tooth Decay? Who is at Risk for Cavities?

Tooth decay also known as dental caries, carious lesion or cavities. Cavities are holes in the teeth due to bacterial activities. Tooth decay is a common dental problem.

Our mouths are full of bacteria. Hundreds of different types of bacteria live in our teeth, gums, tongue and other places in the mouth. Some are helpful but some are harmful such as those that play a role in the tooth decay process. IF not treated, tooth decay can cause pain, infection and tooth loss.

Tooth DecayWhat Causes Tooth Decay?

There are 4 main criteria required for caries formation

  • tooth surface
  • caries causing bacteria
  • fermentable carbohydrates
  • time

Tooth Surface:-

There are certain diseases and disorders affecting teeth that may leave an individual at a greater risk for cavities. Amelogenesis imperfecta is a disease in which the enamel does not fuuly forms or form insufficient amounts making the teeth more vulnerable to cause decay because enamel is not able to protect the teeth. IN most people diseases and disorders affecting teeth are not primary cause of dental decay. The major component in the enamel is will become soluble when exposed to acidic environment. Enamel begins to demineralize at a pH of 5.5. Dentin and cementum are more susceptible to caries than enamel because they have lower mineral content. Thus, when root surfaces of teeth are exposed from gingival recession or periodontal disease caries can develop more readily

Caries Causing Bacteria:-

Bacteria and food can cause tooth decay. The bacteria form bacterial plaque which is a sticky film that coats your teeth. If you run your tongue along your teeth you may be able to feel this plaque forming. It is slightly rough and it is more noticeable on your back teeth, especially close to your gums. If the plaque is not removed while it is soft, it becomes hard and difficult to remove and it acts as a good place for bacteria to hide. . Most plaque retentive areas are between teeth and inside pits and fissures on chewing surfaces where brushing is difficult. Over 80% of cavities occur inside pits and fissures. When plaque is collected above the gingiva then it is called as supra-gingival plaque and if the plaque is collected below the gums are called as sub-gingival plaque

The bacteria more responsible for dental cavities are the Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species. These organisms can produce high levels of lactic acid following fermentation of dietary sugars. Lactic acid demineralizes the enamel and then cavity is formed. Cementum of root surfaces is more easily demineralized than enamel surfaces. Root caries causing bacteria are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomyces spp., and Nocardia spp and streptococcus mutans.

Fermentable carbohydrates:-

Dental caries is caused by specific types of bacteria that produce acid in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrose, fructose and glucose. The mineral content of teeth is sensitive to acids produced by bacteria. Remineralization can also occur if the acid is neutralized by saliva or mouth mash. If demineralization continues over time, enough mineral content may be lost so that the soft organic material left behind disintegrates forming a cavity or hole.

Exposure time:-

The frequency of which teeth are exposed to acidic environment affects the likelihood of caries development. Whenever we eat or drink something that contains sugar or starch, the bacteria use them and produce acids. These acids attack the outer surface of enamel. As time progress, the pH of the oral cavity returns to normal due to the buffering capacity of saliva. Saliva, fluoride from toothpaste, water and other sources help enamel to repair itself by replacing minerals which are lost during an acid attack. Our teeth go through this natural process of losing minerals and regain minerals all day long. When a tooth is exposed to acids frequently, the repeated cycles of acid attacks cause the enamel to continue to lose minerals leading to cavitation.

What are the Risk Factors for Tooth Decay?

Factors which increase the tooth decay are risk factors.

  • Conditions that result in less saliva:-diabetes, Sjogren’s syndrome and some medications decrease the saliva production
  • Not brushing and flossing your teeth
  • High sugar food consumption
  • Not getting enough fluoride
  • Smoking, using spit tobacco
  • Frequent snacking and sipping of drinks
  • Bed time infant feeding
  • Dry mouth
  • Worn fillings or dental devices
  • Eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia
  • Age
  • Acid reflux disease or heart burn
  • Taking sugary and starchy foods and drinks, particularly between meals or within an hour of going to bed
  • Radiation

Who is at Risk for Cavities?

We all carry bacteria in our mouths so everyone is at risk for cavities. Those with a diet high in carbohydrates and sugar foods and those who live in communities without fluoridated water are likely candidates for cavities.

Those with a lot of fillings have a high chance of developing decay because restored teeth are good breeding ground for bacteria. Children and senior citizens are at higher risk for dental decay.

Find out the Symptoms of Tooth Decay & Treatment Procedures

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How Traumatic Ulcers of Mouth Occur | Causes & Treatment | Prevention

What is Traumatic Mouth Ulcers

Ulcers formed in the oral cavity because of trauma are called as traumatic ulcers. Traumatic injuries involving the oral cavity may typically lead to the formation of surface ulcerations. The injuries may result from events such as accidentally biting oneself while talking, sleeping or thermal, chemical and mechanical trauma. Ulcers are painful sores and they are usually red or yellow in color. These traumatic ulcers cannot be caught by kissing or sharing drinks and utensils as they are not caused by infection.

traumatic ulcersThese ulcers are seen in newborns, children and adults.

Newborns and infants:

Sublingual ulcers may occur as a result of chronic mucosal trauma due to adjacent anterior primary is often associated with breast feeding.


Electrical and thermal burns are commonly seen.


  • Carious, malposed, fractured teeth
  • Poor fitting dentures
  • Overheated foods
  • xerostomia

What are the Causes of Traumatic Ulcers?

  • Mechanical trauma
  • Chemical
  • Thermal
  • Electrical
  • Irradiation
  • Parafunctional habits

Mechanical trauma:

Mechanical trauma occurs due to

  • Sharp edges of teeth
  • Dental fillings
  • Crowns
  • poor fitting Dentures
  • Malpositioned teeth
  • Braces
  • Accidental biting
  • Rough foods
  • Trauma to the soft tissue may occur during dental treatment.

Thermal trauma:

It occurs due to

  • Hot food
  • Hot beverages
  • Microwave food

Commonly occurs on palate, posterior buccal mucosa

It appears as zones of erythema and ulceration with necrotic epithelium peripherally.

Electrical trauma:

Chewing the live electrical wires cause electrical trauma.

Ulcers are commonly seen at the corner of the mouth.

Initially painless, chared, yellow color with little bleeding later swelling appears. After that necrosis of ulcer occur. Later the necrotic epithelium sloughs off.

Chemical trauma:

Occurs mostly in children and psychiatric patients

Chemical injury depends on

  • Concentration of chemical agent
  • Time duration of chemical action on the mucosal surface.

Examples of chemical irritants

  • Aspirin
  • Eugenol
  • Chlorpromazine
  • Hydrogen peroxide

Irradiation trauma:

Due to radiation therapy stomatitis may develop associated with mucosal erosions and ulcers. Effect of radiation on salivary glands:-radiation on salivary glands may decrease the saliva production. Decreased production of saliva leads to lack of lubricating function which results in frictional damage and thinning of mucosa (mucosal atrophy) and breach of epithelium

Radiation effect on jaw bones:-Radiation damages the osteocytes. Hypovascular, hypocellular, hypoxic conditions occur due to osteocyte damage. This condition is called as osteoradionecrosis. It causes chronic pain and surface ulceration. Commonly affected jaw bone is mandible.

Parafunctional habits:

Bruxism, thumb sucking may be associated with the development of trauma of the buccal mucosa, labial mucosa, sides of tongue and palate.

What is the Treatment for Traumatic Mouth Ulcers?

Treatment procedure depends on

  • Size
  • Duration
  • Location

For minor ulcers

  • Remove the irritant
  • Use soft mouth guard
  • Use sedative mouth rinse
  • Application of topical anesthetics
  • Application of topical corticosteroids
  • Mechanical ,thermal burns will resolve within 10-14 days
  • Antibiotics will be given to prevent secondary infections. But most of the ulcers resolve without taking antibiotics.

Doctor consultation is necessary for chronic ulcers

How Can I Prevent Mouth Ulcers?

  • Remove the irritants
  • Restore the carious teeth
  • Correction of malposed teeth
  • Replace the poor fitting dentures
  • Sharp cusps of teeth should be rounded
  • Use rubber dam during operative procedures
  • Electrical cords and wires should be kept away from the children
  • Eliminate the Para functional habits such as bruxism, thumb sucking
  • Maintain good oral hygiene
  • Use soft bristled tooth brush
  • Regular dental visits

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How to Overcome Vitamin D Deficiency | Get Vitamin D Foods

Vitamin D

Adequate levels of vitamin D can be produced by the body with regular exposure to sunlight. Sunlight is the best natural source of vitamin D, you can also obtain it through your diet. Vitamin D is also called as ‘sunshine vitamin’. Vitamin D refers to a group of fat soluble secosteroids. In humans the most important compounds in this group are cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol. These can be ingested from the diet and from supplements. The body can also synthesize vitamin D especially cholecalciferol in the skin, from cholesterol, when sun exposure is adequate. It is stored in the body. Vitamin D is important for good overall health and strong healthy bones

Functions of vitamin D

  • Promoting the absorption of calcium which is necessary for healthy bones
  • Promotes the intestinal absorption of the calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc
  • Activated vitamin DS is the one of the most potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth
  • It also stimulates your pancreas to make insulin.
  • Vitamin D reduces blood pressure by decreasing the production of a hormone called renin, which is believed to play a role in hypertension
  • Vitamin D is necessary for brain development
  • Vitamin D is required for healthy heart, circulation and healthy lungs and airway
  • Helps you to fight infections
  • Activated vitamin D working in two ways 1.manage calcium in your blood, bone and gut. 2. Helps cells allover your body to commu7nicate properly
  • Vitamin D may also plays a role in reducing the risk of multiple sclerosis, heart diseases

vitd1How to Get Vitamin D?

Regular sun exposure can stimulate the human skin to produce quantities of vitamin D that far exceed your needs. Sunlight is the largest single source of vitamin D for most people. Just 5 to 10 minutes in the sun two to three times a week exposing your hands, legs and arms is more than adequate to satisfy your vitamin d requirement, and you are not likely to significantly increase your risk of skin cancer on the process. After 5 to ten minutes of exposure, put on a sunscreen containing spf15 or greater for the rest of your time in the sunlight.

Many life style and enviro9nmental factors can affect your ability to get sufficient amount of this vitamin through the sun alone. These factors include

  • Pollution
  • Use of sun screen
  • Spending more time indoors
  • Longer working hours in offices
  • Living in big cities where buildings block the sun light.

What are the Foods Containing the Vitamin D?

Along with the sun light, you can also obtain it through your diet. Vitamin D is present in

  • Dairy products like milk, yogurt
  • Fatty fish
  • Certain mushrooms
  • Cod liver oil
  • Egg yolk
  • Vitamin D fortified foods-fortified means vitamin is fortified with vitamin

How Much Vitamin D You Need?

For 0-12 months the recommended allowance is 400IU. For children, teens and adults up to the age 70 the recommended dose is 600IU.800IU is recommended above the age of 70.pregnant and breast feeding women require 600IU.

Vitamin D Deficiency:

Vitamin D deficiency leads to so many problems such as

Weak bones:-

Vitamin D plays an important role in absorbing calcium from the food in the intestine. If you are deficient in vitamin D, you will be calcium deficient as well. Calcium is required for building stronger and healthy bones. Vitamin D deficiency results in weak, soft and achy bones. Lack of calci9um deposits due to vitamin D deficiency also causes rickets in children and osteomalasia in adults. It also affects the bone density in adults, which increases the risk of osteoporosis and fractures.


Rickets, a childhood disease is characterized by impeded growth and soft, weak, deformed long bones that bend and bow under their weight as children starts to walk. This condition is characterized by  bow legs, calcium or phosphorus deficiency, as well as a lack of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency remains the main cause of rickets among young infants in most countries, because breast milk is low in vitamin D


Osteomalacia refers to a softening of your bones, often caused by a vitamin D deficiency. Soft bones are more likely to bow and fracture than are harder healthy bones. It results from a defect in the bone building process. Muscle weakness and achy bones are the major symptoms of osteomalacia.

  1. Diabetes:-the number of diabetic people is increasing day by day and most of them might be deficient in vitamin D. vitamin D is required to balance sugar levels in the blood by regulating the secretion of insulin
  2. Hypertension:-people having low levels of vitamin D had a higher risk of developing hypertension
  3. Cardiovascular risk:-vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with increased risk of fatal cardiovascular events
  4. Infections:-people who are defici9ent in vitamin D are at an increased risk of developing recurrent infections
  5. Anemia:-peoples having low levels of the hemoglobin also had low levels of vitamin D
  6. brain damage:-vitamin D deficiency can affect the oxidative status of the brain , cognitive performance and memory power
  7. Infertility:-vitamin D stimulates the production of male hormone testosterone and female hormone progesterone. Vitamin D deficiency leads to decreased production of these hormones
  8. Crohn’s disease:-it is a form of inflammatory bowel disease that affects the intestine. Low levels of vitamin D affects the genetic expression involved in crohns disease making the symptoms more worse
  9. Aging:-withy low levels of vitamin D, your body will start ageing prematurely. Vitamin D deficiency cause early ageing of bone because of reduced bone mass
  10. Depression:-an oral vitamin D therapy for 8-12 weeks significantly improved depression symptoms
  11. Cancer:-there is abundant evidence supporting the role of vitamin D levels and reduced risk of colon, prostate, breast cancers.

How to Overcome Vitamin D Deficiency?

  • Sunlight is the natural source of vitamin D. So pants need to encourage their kids to play outdoor games ten they will get sufficient exposure to the sun. To initiate this, families can make a habit of a daily visit to a nearby park or garden, especially the ones residing in closed housing complexes.
  • Children should be analyzed periodically by a physician or pediatrician for impaired growth or development, bony deformities and other signs of vitamin D deficiency. Children showing positive signs of vitamin D deficiency should be administered with vitamin D and their parents should be educated towards lifestyle and diet modification and about the availability of vitamin D fortified food
  • Women, especially the pregnant and breast feeding group should ensure sufficient sun exposure and consume vitamin D rich diet and fortified food to meet the excess demand of their body
  • Adults and older people should take care to get the recommended amount of vitamin D
  • The vitamin is well absorbed from foods like fortified milk and from vitamin pills, whether taken alone or in combination with other foods

Is Vitamin D Toxic in High Doses?

Vitamin D toxicity is not caused by sun light exposure, but can be caused by supplementing with high doses of vitamin D.

The vitamin D toxicity cause hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, weakness, insomnia, proteinuria, metastatic calcification, pruritus mental retardation in young children, irritability, weight loss, severe depression, abnormal growth and bone formation

What is the Treatment for Vitamin D Toxicity?

Discontinue the vitamin D supplements and restrict the calcium intake

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Gingival Enlargement Effects! Symptoms & How to Treat & Prevent It

Gingival Enlargement also known as Gingival hyperplasia, Gingival hypertrophy, Gingival overgrowth, Hypertrophic gingivitis which is caused with the increase in the size of gingiva is called as gingival enlargement. Healthy gums are pale pink or pigmented, and wrap tightly around the neck of the teeth.

What is the effect of gingival enlargement?

Esthetic and functional problems will occur. Due to massive gingival enlargement, an affected person usually develops an abnormal swallowing pattern and experience difficulty in speech and mastication. Along with these features, there may be some interference with maintenance of oral hygiene. A cute pain associated with gingival enlargement leads to loss of mastication ability and difficulty in swallowing food. Gingival enlargement may leads to bad breath also.


Based on location and distribution

  • Localized:-
  • Generalized:-involving the gingiva throughout the mouth
  • Marginal:-confined to the marginal gingiva
  • Papillary:-confined to the interdental papilla
  • Discrete:-an isolated sessile or pedunculated tumor like enlargement
  • Diffuse:-involving the marginal and attached gingiva and papilla

Based on the etiology it is classified into 5 types

  • Inflammatory gingival enlargement
  • Drug induced gingival enlargement
  • Enlargement associated with systemic factors
  • Neoplastic enlargement
  • False enlargement

Inflammatory gingival enlargement:

Gingiva size increases due to inflammation. Gingival enlargement may result from chronic or acute inflammatory changes

Chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement:

causes are prolonged exposure to dental plaque, poor oral hygiene, irritation by anatomic abnormalities, improper restorative and orthodontic appliances.

  • Gingiva is tender, soft and red
  • It is localized or generalized.
  • Interdental, marginal, attached gingiva may involved
  • Slow progressive and painless enlargement
  • Painful ulceration may occur sometimes.

Acute gingival enlargement

causes are bacteria carried deep in to the tissues.

  • Marginal and inter5dental gingiva are invo9lved
  • Localized, painful, rapidly expanding within 24-28 hours lesion becomes fluctuant and purulent exudate expressed

Drug induced Gingival Enlargement:

The size of gingiva increases due to some drugs.


  1. Anticonvulsants
  • Phenytoin
  • Phenobarbital
  • Lamotrigine
  • Valproate
  1. Calcium channel blockers
  • Nifedipine
  • Amlodipine
  • Verapamil
  1. Immunosuppressant
  • cyclosporine

Enlarged gingiva is firm, non -tender

Pale pink in color

Do not bleed easily.

Associated with systemic factors:

It is divided into 2 types

  1. Conditioned enlargement
  2. Associated with systemic diseases

Conditioned enlargement:


  • Pregnancy:-enlargement in pregnancy also called as pregnancy tumor or pyogenic granuloma.
  • Puberty
  • Vitamin c deficiency

Associated with systemic diseases:

  • Leukemia
  • Granulomatous diseases such as Sarcoidosis, wegner’s granulomatosis

Neoplastic enlargement

Neoplastic enlargements are two types.

Benign-fibromas, papilloma, giant cell granulomas, gingival cyst, nevus

Malignant-Carcinoma, Malignant melanoma, Fibrosarcoma, Lymphosarcoma, Kaposis sarcoma

False gingival enlargement:

False gingival enlargement is seen when there is an underlying bony or dental tissue lesion

Scoring of gingival enlargement:

  • Grade 0: no signs of gingival enlargement
  • Grade 1: enlargement confined to interdental papilla
  • Grade 2: papilla and marginal gingiva are involved
  • Grade 3: enlargement covers three quarter or more of the crown

How to treat Gingival Enlargement?

Gingival enlargement can be caused by a number of various stimuli, and treatment is based on an understanding of the cause and underlying pathologic changes

  • Oral hygiene: scaling and root planing to remove the plaque and calculus
  • Adjust the improper restorations and orthodontic appliances
  • Gingivectomy-surgical removal of hypertrophied gingiva.
  • Lasers:Co2 lasers used for excision of gingiva
  • Ceasing or substituting with another drugs to the drug induced gingival enlargement
  • Use antiseptic mouthwash


  • Mouth breathing should be treated earlier.
  • Daily twice brushing
  • Regular flossing
  • Dental visits for every six months

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What Causes Dentin Hypersensitivity? Know The Symptoms & Treatments

Dentin hypersensitivity is dental pain which is sharp and of short duration, arising from exposed dentin surfaces in response to stimuli, typically thermal, chemical, electrical, tactile, osmotic, evaporative and which cannot be ascribed to any other dental defect or pathology. The pain response varies substantially from one person to another.

Also known as sensitive dentin or dentin can affect at any age, although those aged 20-50 years are more likely to be affected. Females are affected more than males. Most commonly effected teeth are premolars and canines.

Dentin hypersensitivityWhat are the symptoms of dentin hypersensitivity?

  • The pain is sharp and sudden, in response to an external stimulus.
  • The most common cause is cold. Many people with dentin sensitivity reports pain upon application of a cold stimulus.

What causes dentin hypersensitivity?

Due to enamel loss

Tooth crown is composed of enamel, dentin and pulp. The outer layer is enamel. Enamel has no nerve supply. Dentin and pulp has nerve supply. After the loss of enamel denti8n is exposed. The exposed dentin leads to sensitivity. Causes of enamel loss are

Toothy wear: wear-tooth wear is defined as loss of dental hard tissue by a chemical or mechanical process not involving bacteria. Tooth wear facets are characterized as flat, round or sharp angled and polished surfaces on the Occlusal or incisal areas of the teeth and may be the result of excessive attrition of one tooth against the other. Tooth wear leads to enamel loss and exposes dentin. Severe tooth wear may extend to the pulp

Toothbrush abrasions: Improper tooth brushing techniques and high abrasive tooth pastes result in tooth brush abrasions

Abfraction: Abfraction lesions are small notches caused by stress on your teeth. Biting, chewing, clenching and grinding put pressure on your teeth. Over time, this pressure can cause cracks and splits in the outer layer of the teeth. This occurs in the thinnest part of your enamel near the gum line. In severe cases the dentin cementum layers of a tooth may become involved. Dentin may be exposed if a crack develops. In these cases the tooth may become sensitive.

Dietary erosion: Any food substance with a critical PH value of less than 5.5 can become a corrosive and demineralize the tooth structure creating erosion. Erosion of the dentin appears to bring about a rapid loss of the smear layer and the opening of dentinal tubules. The combination of abrasion and erosion can exacerbate dentin sensitivity quickly

Para functional habits: Ex: teeth Grinding in sleep. Para functional habits results in enamel loss and dentin exposure

Due to cementum loss

Cementum is a specialized calcified substance covering the root of a tooth. The root of the tooth is the part that extends into the upper or lower jaw bones. Cementum is not as hard and as white as enamel. Dentin is present under the cementum in the root. Due to loss of cementum dentin is exposed and leads to hypersensitivity. Causes of cementum loss are

Gingival recession: When cementum is exposed through gingival recession, it quickly undergoes abrasion by mechanical friction because of its low mineral content and thinness. The exposure of the deeper dentin can lead to problems such as extrinsic staining and dentin hypersensitivity

Periodontal diseases: cementum loss and gingival recession may occur due to periodontal diseases

Root planing: root dentin may exposed during root planing procedure

Periodontal surgeries: An increase in the root sensitivity occurred 1-3 weeks following therapy, after which it decreased.

Theories to explain dentin hypersensitivity:

  • Direct innervation theory

Nerve fibers present within dentinal tubules initiate impulses when they are injured and cause dentinal hypersensitivity

  • Odontoblast transducer mechanism

It was suggested that odontoblasts acted bas receptor cells mediating changes in the odontoblasts via synaptic junctions with nerves. This could result in sensation of pain from the nerve endings located in the pulpodentinal border

  • Hydrodynamic theory

Most widely accepted theory is hydrodynamic theory. This was proposed by Gysi. Fluids within the dentinal tubules are disturbed either by thermal, physical or osmotic changes and that these fluid changes or movements stimulate baroreceptor which leads to neural discharge.

Prevention Techniques & Tips:

We all know that prevention is better than cure so follow these simple preventive measures to avoid dentin hypersensitivity.

  • Decrease the consumption of acidic fruits and beverages
  • Follow the proper brushing techniques
  • Care during operative procedures
  • Care during periodontal procedures.
  • Elimination of Para functional habits.

Dentin Hypersensitivity Treatment:

Dentin hypersensitivity is relatively common and significant dental problem which can be successfully managed by a very wide variety of procedures, agents and formulations applied locally, either in office of at home. The treatment must act fast, be effective for long periods, be easy to apply, not irritate the pulp, not cause pain, not stain the teeth and be constantly effective.

The most inexpensive and efficacious first line of treatment for most patients is a tooth paste containing a desensitizing active ingredient such as Potassium nitrate or Stannous fluoride.

Nerve desensitization

Formation of smear layer over exposed dentin

  • Desensitizing tooth pastes
  • Desensitizing chewing gums and mouthwashes.

Use of topical agents to occlude exposed dentin

  • Calcium hydroxide paste
  • Calcium Phosphate paste
  • Fluorides
  • Varnishes
  • Dentin adhesives
  • Potassium nitrate
  • Silver nitrate


Ex: glass ionomer cement Composite


Lasers occlude the dentinal tubules by producing local changes around the exposed dentin. They also change the central pulp neuron.

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What Causes Bad Breath in Adults & Children

Natural Remedies for Bad Breath - SolutionsUnpleasant odor present in the exhaled breath .Bad breath also known as “Halitosis”. Halitosis can result from poor dental habits and may be a sign of other health problems. Bad breath can also be made worse by the types of food you eat and other unhealthy life style habits. It’s an unpleasant condition that’s cause for embarrassment

Odor causing sites in the mouth are

  1. Back of the tongue
  2. Areas between teeth
  3. Under the gum line

A healthy mouth should no obvious odor. Bad breath affects the social interactions. If your breath is fresh, you can talk freely and confidently. In many cases, you can improve bad breath with consistent proper dental hygiene. If simple self-care techniques don’t solve the problem, see your dentist as soon as possible


  • Poor oral hygiene
  • infections in the mouth
  • External agents
  • Respiratory tract infections
  • Dry mouth
  • chronic illness

Poor oral hygiene:-

It is the most common cause of bad breath.

Bacterial action on the accumulated foods leads to bad breath.

Bacterial action on the sulfur containing substrates produce hydrogen sulfide gas which has bad odor.

Bacteria will multiply throughout the mouth then the odor also increases.

Odor causing bacteria and food particles can cause bad breath if dentures are not properly cleaned.

Infections in the mouth:-

  • decay
  • Abscess
  • Swollen gums
  • Periodontal diseases
  • Oral candidiasis

Persistent bad breath or a bad taste in the mouth may be a warning sign of gum disease.

Dry mouth:-

Saliva lubricates the mouth and it helps in proper chewing and swallowing. Saliva naturally cleans the mouth and prevents the cavity formation. Saliva is necessary to moisten the mouth, neutralize acids produced by plaque, and wash away dead cells that accumulate on the tongue, gums, cheeks. If not removed these cells decompose and can cause bad breath. Dry mouth is caused by decreased salivary production. Due to decreased Sali9va production plaque accumulation occurs and that leads to bad breath

External agents:-

  • Onions and garlic consumption
  • Coffee and tea
  • Alcohol
  • Cigarette smoking


Smoke from the cigarette Inhaled into the lungs and exhaled through the nose and can cause immediate effect on breath due to chemicals, residue remain in mouth leads to Bad breath. Habit of smoking can cause periodontal diseases.

Respiratory tract infections:-

  • Throat infections
  • Lung infections
  • Sinus
  • Chronic kidney failure-fishy smell
  • Ketoacidosis-fruity smell
  • Diabetes-sweet smell
  • Chronic acid reflux
  • Pneumonia

Medical conditions:-

Other causes

Stomach disorders such as acid reflux, bowel disorders or even just indigestion can all result in bad breath

Cracked dentures and improperly cleaned dentures and appliances

Causes of bad breath in children

It’s important to uncover the cause of bad breath in children. AN illness, not just poor dental hygiene might be responsible.

  1. Poor dental hygiene-children who do not properly brush or floss their teeth and tongue are more likely to experience bad breath, resulting from bacterial action on food particles in their mouth
  2. Mouth breathing-mouth breathing is another frequent cause for bad breath in children. Mouth breathing is the act of inhaling and exhaling through the mouth versus the nose. Mouth breathing results in dry mouth. Dry mouth provides an environment for the growth and propagation of bacteria that causes bad breath. Children may breath through the mouth as a result of cold, sore throat, sinus infection, enlarged tonsils, nasal passage blockages
  3. Tooth decay and gum diseases-odor causing bacteria increases in these conditions
  4. Children prone to thumb sucking may also experience dry mouth and bad breath
  5. Seasonal allergies-bad breath may indicate the onset of seasonal allergies. Allergies may cause mucus discharge to collect on the back of your child’s tongue. Bacteria accumulates in the mucus discharge and break down the protein to produce volatile sulfur products. Other symptoms associated with seasonal allergies are dry mouth, runny nose, itchy eyes

There are several ways to detect your own bad breath

  1. Visual test-most cases of bad breath are caused by bacteria on the tongue , you can visually check for their presence. They usually appear as a whitish coating. Stand at a mirror and use a tissue to grip the tip of your tongue. If the back part of tissue is noticeably coated, you must likely have halitosis
  2. Tongue test-you can test the front and back of your tongue to detect any odors. For the front part, lick your wrist and wait 5 seconds to dry saliva then smell the area. For the back of the tongue turn the spoon upside down and gently scrape it on that area. If you see whitish material on that spoon, sniff it, it will most likely have an unpleasant odor
  3. Floss test-use a strip of unscented dental floss to floss the areas between your back teeth. You should then smell the floss. If it has an odor you probably have bad breath


Using mint or rinsing with mouth wash may appear tom freshen up your breath, but these remedies only temporarily mask the problem, instead of eliminating it; eventually your bad breath returns.

  • Treatment will be given based on the under lying cause.
  • Consult your dentist
  • Follow oral hygiene instructions
  • Quit smoking
  • Use floss or interdental cleaner to remove food particles and plaque between the teeth.
  • Mouth breathing and thumb sucking habits should be treated
  • Orthodontic correction for irregularly arranged teeth
  • Tooth decay and periodontal diseases should be treated
  • Cracked dentures should be replaced
  • Underlying medical conditions should be treated


  1. Daily twice brushing
  2. daily flossing
  3. Regular tongue cleaning
  4. Cleaning of the mouth  after meals
  5. Dentures should be cleaned properly
  6. Regular dental visits (at least 2 visits per year).
  7. Taking more water

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Gum Bleeding Causes & Symptoms to Identify Gingivitis!

gum bleedingMedical word for gum bleeding is “gingivitis”. It is defined as Inflammation of gums that is caused when plaque accumulates in the spaces between the gums and teeth.

One fine morning when you woke up after a good sleep and started brushing your teeth, you realized that you were spitting a slight amount of blood with the foam. After a while, you may notice the bleeding even while eating or at times spontaneously.

Never ignore bleeding gums as they might be the mirror to a more serious problem.

Causes for Gum Bleeding:

Poor Oral Hygiene
Improper brushing and flossing techniques result in plaque buildup on the teeth. This plaque buildup leads to red, swollen, painful and irritated gums. Gums may then bleeding at the slightest provocation. Poor oral hygiene plays major role in many dental it is very important to keep the oral cavity healthy.

Mal Positioned Teeth
It is very difficult to clean the irregularly arranged teeth. Plaque accumulation will occur between the teeth and under the sulcus area. This leads to gingival irritation and gum bleeding.

Trauma to The Gum
Overzealous brushing and using hard bristle tooth brush can cause trauma to the gingiva. Due to this trauma gingiva bleeds.

Vitamin C Deficiency
Vitamin C is necessary for gingival health. Decreased levels of vitamin C can cause bleeding from gums. Read How to Overcome Vitamin C Deficiency

Vitamin K Deficiency
Vitamin K is required for blood coagulation. Gut microbes play major role in the synthesis of vitamin K.prolonged use of oral antibiotic destroy the gut microbes which results in vitamin K affects the blood coagulation process and it can cause bleeding from gums.

Hormonal Changes
Hormonal changes occur in females at the time of puberty and pregnancy. These changes may cause bleeding gums.  Usage of blood thinners as a regular medication may also cause the bleeding in gums.

Apart from these other reasons are

  • Stress
  • Radiation Therapy
  • HIV
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Tobacco Usage
  • Liver Diseases
  • Cancer Such as Leukaemia (Blood Cancer)

What are the Symptoms of Gum Bleeding (gingivitis)?

For many people with gingivitis, this inflammation is not painful.

  • Gingiva appears red in color
  • Swollen gums
  • Painful, irritated gums
  • Gums may bleed at slightest provocation such as brushing or probing

A severe case of gingivitis is marked by swollen, bleeding gums and swollen lymph nodes around the jaw and neck

How to Overcome Gum Bleeding?

If you catch gingivitis early, it can be reversed and healed with proper oral hygiene. But if it is left untreated, gingivitis can worsen and ultimately lead to tooth loss

  • Scaling and root planning-to remove the plaque and to soften the rough areas on the root
  • Use Antibiotic mouth wash
  • Daily twice brushing
  • Use dental floss daily
  • Oral antibiotics can be given to treat persistent areas of gum inflammation.
  • Quit the habits like smoking and chewing tobacco
  • Orthodontic correction is needed for mal positioned teeth
  • Certain medications are risk factors for gum consult your doctor before using steroids, oral contraceptives

    What are the Methods to Prevent Gum Bleeding?

  • Maintain proper and consistent oral hygiene
  • Take balanced diet
  • Use fluoride toothpaste
  • Floss every day
  • Regular dental visits
  • Use soft bristled tooth brush
  • Avoid overzealous brushing
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Avoid extremely cold or hot foods

So,the next time you notice bleeding gums, you know well not to neglect it and visit a dentist at the earliest

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Tooth Wear Causes! Symptoms & Prevention Treatment Methods

Tooth wear described as the progressive loss of a tooth’s surface due to actions other than those which cause tooth decay or dental trauma.

Teeth wear increases with age. It is the irreversible loss of tooth surface. The resulting structural loss can harm appearance, impair function and cause sensitivity.

tooth wear orgTooth wear is caused by

  • Attrition
  • Abrasion
  • Corrosion
  • Abfraction


Attrition is the loss of tooth structure by mechanical forces from opposing teeth initially affects the enamel and if unnoticed may proceed to the underlying dentin.


  1. bruxism
  2. malocclusion
  3. constant chewing tobacco.


  • Polished facets on enamel surfaces.
  • Flattening of incisal edges.
  • Dentin is exposed
  • Sensitivity of dentin
  • Decreased clinical crown height.


Abrasion is the progressive loss of hard tooth substances caused by mechanical actions other than mastication or tooth to tooth contact.


  1. Incorrect tooth brushing techniques
  2. Seen in individuals who use their teeth as a tool (to hold pins, nails, to remove bottle caps)


Lesions are typically rounded or “v” shaped ditches seen on the bucal/labial surfaces in the region of cej

Most commonly affected teeth are canines and premolars.

Notching of the incisal edges on upper central incisor teeth is often seen as aresult of habit such as biting nails,thread,hairpins.


Progressive loss of tooth substance by chemical or acid dissolution, and no bacteria are involved.


  1. Too frequent consumption of carbonated drinks.
  2. excessive consumption of acidic fruit juices
  3. people who suffer from gastro esophageal disease.
  4. people who suffer from eating disorders.
  5. chewing tobacco and chewing gums
  6. drymouth ,which increases the risk of damage from acid attack.
  7. medcation such as vitamin c,aspirin,iron preparations.
  8. chlorinated swimmingpools


  • Teeth appears yellow in color due to darker dentin showing through thin outer enamel.
  • Teeth appearing smooth and glazed
  • Front teeth edge becomes squarish,transparent,eventually becoming shorter.
  • T6eeht becoming sensitive to hot,cold or sweet foods and drinks.
  • Occlusal surfaces of back teeth showing smooth,concave surfaces


Abfraction is the microstructural loss of tooth substance in areas of stress concentration.

This occurs most commonly in the cervical region of teeth, where flexure may lead to a breaking away of the thin layer of enamel as well as microfracture of cementum and dentin.


Occlusal forces which cause the tooth to flex, cause small enamel flecks to break off, inducing the abrasive lesions.

Abfraction is associated with

  • Anterior open bite
  • Occlusal restorations that changes the cusp movements.
  • Abnormal tongue movements.


Classical wedge shaped lesion with sharp rims at the cervicoenameljunction.

The extent of the lesion is dependent on the size,duration,direction,frequency and location of forces concerned.

Recurrently failing cervical restorations.

Combined mechanism of tooth wear:

  • Attrition-abfraction
  • Abrasion-abfraction
  • Corrosion-abfraction
  • Attrition-corrosion
  • Abrasion-corrosion

Treatment of Tooth Wear:

Reconstruct the affected teeth by giving restorations, crowns.

Use desensitizing toothpastes.

Diet counseling

Splint therapy to treat bruxism.

Prevention Methods for Tooth Wear:

  • Avoid brushing shortly after acid exposure
  • Use the remineralising toothpastes which increase surface hardness of teeth.
  • Reduce the frequency of consumption of acidic fruits and juices.
  • Use less abrasive toothpaste
  • Avoid overzealous brushing
  • Change the habits such as pencil biting, holding needles, nails with teeth
  • Low pH mouth rinses should be avoided

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What Causes Dry Mouth? | Symptoms & Treatment Guide

Dry mouth is a condition that usually results from decreased production of saliva. Dry mouth is also called as xerostomia.

Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while- when they are nervous, upset or under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can be uncomfortable and can lead to serious health problems. Dry mouth is a symptom of an underlying problem, rather than a disease itself.

Salivary glands produce the saliva which is pumped into the mouth along tiny channels called salivary ducts.

Salivary glands are

  • Parotid glands:-located in front of the ear and behind the angle of the jaw.
  • Submandibular salivary glands:-located beneath the tongue on both sides of the jaw
  • Sublingual salivary glands:-located at the floor of the mouth.

Functions of saliva:-

Saliva is a essential part of a healthy mouth.

  • Acts as a lubricant(reduces the friction during chewing and swallowing)
  • Neutralizes the acids
  • Contain antibodies against bacterial threat
  • Helps in digestion of food
  • Acts as a solvent for the taste stimuli
  • Flushes food particles
  • Contain antifungal properties
  • Contain phosphorus and calcium which are used in the process of remineralisation
  • Helps with the formation of particular sounds in speech

dry mouth causesDry Mouth Causes:-

  1. Side effect of certain medications:-most commonly occurs as a side effect of medications that cause decrease saliva production including

Blood pressure medication




Muscle relaxants and sedatives

Pain killers

  1. Side effect of certain diseases and infections:-side effect of medical conditions include
  • Sjogren’s syndrome:-dry mouth is one of the major symptom of the Sjogren’s is the disease of the immune system where the body attacks its own moisture creating tear and salivary glands. This syndrome includes dry eyes, nose, throat, even dry skin.
  • Hiv
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Diabetes
  • Anemia
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Hypertension
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Mumps

3.Salivary gland malfunction, salivary gland stones, Salivary gland infections, salivary gland swelling leads to decreased saliva production

4 .Nerve damage:-nerve damage to the head and neck area, can result dry mouth

  1. Radiation:-radiation to head and neck can damage salivary glands, causing a marked decrease in saliva production. This can be temporary or permanent depending on the dose and area of treatment
  2. Chemotherapy:- drugs can change the nature of saliva and the amount produced. this is temporary with normal salivary flow returning after the treatment has been completed.
  3. Salivary duct obstruction:-small stones made from saliva minerals may lodge in the ducts and restrict saliva flow
  4. Dehydration:-water or metabolite loss can lead to dry mouth. ex: blood loss, chronic diarrhea, vomiting, kidney failure
  5. Mouth breathing:-usually caused by partial obstruction of the upper respiratory tract.
  6. Tobacco;-chewing or smoking tobacco can increase the risk of dry mouth symptoms

Other rare causes are hyperparathyroidism, salivary gland aplasia or atresia,sarcoidosis

Dry Mouth Symptoms:-

  • Sticky, dry feeling in the mouth
  • Difficulty in chewing, swallowing
  • Difficulty in speaking
  • Frequent thirst
  • Burning feeling in the mouth.
  • Bad breath
  • Cracked lips
  • Dry, tough tongue
  • Mouth sores
  • Sticky, stringy saliva
  • Sore throat
  • Taste disorders
  • Infections in the mouth
  • Multiple cavities
  • Gum irritation and gum diseases.

Treatment for Dry Mouth:-

Underlying causes such as medical condition, salivary gland diseases, mouth breathing,dehydration should be treated

Saliva substitutes:-these include

  • Water
  • Artificial saliva
  • Other substances like milk, vegetable oil

Saliva stimulation:-

  • Sugar free chewing gums
  • Medication such as pilocarpine

Prevention of caries and fungal infections:

  • Take low sugar diet
  • Use antimicrobial rinses
  • Use tooth paste containing fluoride, calcium, phosphate
  • Fluoride treatment
  • Topical antifungal treatment to treat oral thrush
  • Dentures should be soaked daily in chlorhexidine.
  • Use humidifier in the bed room

Individuals with dry mouth should avoid

  • Sugar foods and drinks
  • Dry foods
  • Spicy foods
  • Excessively hot or cold drinks
  • Acidic foods or drinks
  • Over consumption of alcohol and caffeine containing drinks
  • Smoking and chewing tobacco

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Role of Vitamin C & How to Overcome Vitamin C Deficiency

Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin that is necessary for normal growth and is also called as ascorbic acid. Vitamin C gives protection against immune system deficiencies, cardiovascular disease, prenatal health problems, eye diseases and even skin wrinkling. your body doesn’t produce or store vitamin C so it’s important to include vitamin C in your diet. any extra vitamin C will simply be flushed out of body in urine.


Smokers:-individuals who smoke require 35 mg per day more Vitamin C than nonsmokers.


Fruits and vegetables are best sources of Vitamin C. A cup of orange juice or a half cup of red pepper would be enough to meet your RDA (recommended dietary allowance) for Vitamin C.

Vit-CVitamin C rich foods and beverages are

  • Cantaloupe
  • Orange juice
  • Broccoli
  • Red cabbage
  • Green pepper
  • Berries
  • Citrus fruits
  • Red pepper
  • Kiwi
  • Tomato juice
  • Grape fruit juice
  • Mango
  • Pineapple
  • guavas
  • Papaya
  • Water melon
  • Cauliflower
  • Spinach
  • Sweet and white potatoes
  • Green peas

Role of Vitamin C:

  • Vitamin C is required for the biosynthesis of collagen and certain neuro transmitters also involved in protein metabolism. Collagen is an essential component of connective tissue which plays a vital role in wound healing.
  • Vitamin C is beneficial to individuals whose immune system was weakened due to stress. Vitamin C is one of the nutrients sensitive to stress and is the first nutrient to be depleted in alcoholics, smokers, obese individuals, it makes it an ideal marker for oral health.
  • When it comes to the common cold Vitamin C may not be a cure but some studies show that it may help prevent more serious complications. Taking Vitamin C for cold and flu can reduce the risk of developing further complications such as pneumonia and lung infections
  • Vitamin C improves the absorption of non heme iron, the form of iron present in plant based foods.
  • Heal wounds and forms scar tissue
  • Vitamin C acts as an anti-oxidant and it decreases the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases.
  • Repair and maintain cartilage, bones and teeth
  • Plays a role in the skin aging and wrinkling process
  • Vitamin C limits the damage induced by ultraviolet light exposure. Vitamin C is not a sunscreen because it does not absorb the light. Rather the antioxidant activity of Vitamin C protects against uv-induced damage caused by free radicals.
  • Scurvy:-often presents itself initially as symptoms of malaise and lethargy followed by formation of spots on the skin, spongy gums, bleeding from the mucous membranes. Spots are most abundant on the thighs and legs, person feels depressed and is partially immobilized. As scurvy advances, there can be open, suppurative wounds, loss of teeth, jaundice, fever, neuropathy and death.
  • Anemia
  • Decreased ability to fight infections
  • Decreased wound healing rate
  • Dry and splitting hair
  • Easy bruising
  • Gingivitis
  • Nose bleeds
  • Rough, dry, scaly skin
  • Swollen and painful joints
  • Weakened tooth enamel
  • Possible weight gain because of slower metabolism.

Vitamin C deficiency:-

Risk of Vitamin C deficiency seen in

Smokers and passive smokers-decreased Vitamin C level in plasma is these individuals require more Vitamin C than non-smokers

Infants fed evaporated or boiled milk-boiled or evaporated cow milk is not recommended. Cow milk contains low Vitamin C and heat can destroy Vitamin C.

Individuals taking limited food varieties

People with malabsorption and certain chronic diseases.

How to overcome Vitamin C deficiency:

It is not very difficult to overcome Vitamin C deficiency. Vitamin C is found in citrus fruits, berries, germinated grains.

Take fresh fruits and vegetables

Vitamin C supplements

Effect of over doses of Vitamin C supplements:

Over doses of Vitamin C supplements may cause

  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Heart burn
  • Abdominal bloating and cramps
  • Headache
  • insomnia
  • kidney stones

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