Monthly Archive February 2016

Exercises which you can do during the First three months of Pregnancy

The first trimester is the most critical time in your pregnancy. Although the fetus at the end of three months is only about 4 inches long and weighs less than 1 ounce, all of its functions have begun to form — major organs and nervous system, heartbeat, arms, fingers, legs, toes, hair, and buds for future teeth.

This is not a time to skimp on food or count calories. You’re not quite eating for two people, but you do need extra nutrients for your growing fetus. The general recommendation is to eat about 300 extra calories a day. You’ll need to gain 25 to 35 pounds during your pregnancy. This will allow you to nourish your fetus and store nutrients for breast-feeding. Expect to gain at least 3 to 4 pounds during the first trimester.

Exercise is important during the first trimester of pregnancy and helps by:

  • Preventing/easing back pain and other discomforts
  • Boosting mood and energy levels
  • Preventing excess weight gain
  • Increasing muscle strength

exercise

Exercises

  • Walking helps the heart and lungs work more efficiently with minimal stress on your joints
  • Other choices: swimming, low impact aerobics and cycling on a stationary bike
  • Strength training exercises; avoid lifting very heavy weights
  • Combination of aerobic exercise like swimming or walking and strengthening exercise like yoga
  • Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity activity, on most, if not all, days of the week

Signs which mean stop exercising

  • Chest, leg, joint or stomach pain
  • Dizziness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Vaginal bleeding or loss of fluid from vagina
  • Difficulty with walking
  • Uterine contractions

Helpful tips:-

  • Discuss with your doctor before starting any exercise
  • Although exercise is generally good for you as well as your baby, your doctor might advise you not to exercise if you have:
  1. Any heart or lung disease
  2. Pregnancy related high blood pressure
  3. Problems related to uterus
  4. Vaginal bleeding
  5. History of preterm labor during previous pregnancy
  6. Multiple pregnancies increasing the risk for preterm labor

Exercises to Avoid

Some exercises are never good during pregnancy. Avoid any contact sport in which someone could injure you or the baby with the force of a ball or her own body. Skip the slopes as you could collide with someone, something or suffer altitude sickness — restricting your baby’s oxygen supply. Put gymnastics, water skiing, scuba diving and horseback riding on hold during pregnancy. The jolts from riding can harm the baby.

Exercising With Caution

Even when you’re just going for a power walk, you need to take more than just your favorite tunes loaded onto your mp3 player. Dress appropriately in a supportive sports bra, loose-fitted clothing and athletic shoes with good traction. Take a bottle of water to stay hydrated. Warm-up beforehand and cool-down after. You should not feel hot or winded. Overheating is especially dangerous in these first three months.

 

 

Changes in the First 3 months of Pregnancy

If you know what changes can happen during pregnancy. It can help you face the months ahead with confidence.

Pregnancy has three Trimesters-what are these?

The entire duration of pregnancy is divided into 3 trimesters as follows

  1. First trimester:- begins from the first day of your last period and last till the end of week 13.
  2. Second trimester:– begins from week 14 and lasts till the end of week 26 (consists of 4th, 5th and 6th completed months of pregnancy
  3. Third trimester:– begins from week 27 and ends anywhere between week 38-week 42 (consists of 7th, 8th and 9th completed months of pregnancy.

1st trimester

Changes that you may experience during the first trimester

Bleeding:-

  • Some may bleed slightly during the first trimester
  • No need to worry; light spotting may indicate that the fertilized embryo has got attached to the wall of uterus

What you can do?

Call your doctor immediately if you have increased bleeding and cramps or sharp pain in the abdomen; this could be a sign of miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy (embryo getting implanted outside the uterus)

Painful breasts:-

  • One of the earliest signs of pregnancy, which can last till the last trimester Occurs because of hormonal changes, which are preparing your milk ducts to feed the baby
  • To overcome this problem- increase your bra size and wear a more supportive or sports bra.

Constipation:-

  • High hormone levels during pregnancy may slow down the movement of food through your intestine
  • Your iron supplements may also lead to constipation

What you can do?

  • Take fiber-rich diet
  • Drink lots of fluids
  • Increase physical activity

Fatigue:-

Your body is working hard to support a growing baby; it is common to feel exhausted

What you can do?

  • Make sure you eat a healthy diet and get plenty of rest and sleep
  • Take iron supplements as prescribed by your doctor, as too little can lead to anemia
  • Eat more proteins; they help in iron absorption and production of red blood cells’ there by preventing anemia
  • Eat foods rich in iron such as jiggery, green leafy vegetables like spinach, mustard leaves, turnip green, cereals and sprouted pulses to prevent anemia

Food cravings and Aversions:-

Craving for food is common in some, while some may dislike food. Craving from time to time is normal, provided you are having healthy, low calorie foods. If you experience craving for non-foods like clay, dirt etc.’ then report to your doctor immediately, as this could be dangerous for you and your baby

Nausea or Morning sickness:-

  • Nausea is very common and occurs due to hormonal changes in your body; it can last through the first trimester
  • It is usually worst in the morning, hence also called as morning sickness
  • Nausea may be a warning sign that you are experiencing a protein deficiency

What you can do?

  • Eat small, frequent meals throughout the day
  • Eat foods low in fat and easy to digest
  • Eat meals high in protein
  • If your diet is low in protein, take protein supplements after consulting your doctor
  • Avoid smells such as cigarette smoke or perfume that can worsen nausea
  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • Avoid coffee/fluids containing caffeine and alcohol

 

Gingival Enlargement Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Gingival enlargement is usually caused by local conditions such as poor oral hygiene, food impaction or mouth breathing. Systemic conditions such as hormonal changes, drug therapy or tumor infiltrates may complicate the process or even set the stage for the development of unfavorable local conditions that lead to food impaction and difficulty with oral hygiene, functional and esthetic problems.

gingival enlargement

1.    Inflammatory Gingival Enlargement

Causes:-

  • Lack of oral hygiene
  • Common in adults, greater predilection during puberty
  • Females are affected more than males. Higher risk during pregnancy and treatment with oral contraceptive pills
  • Predisposing factors-Tooth crowding, mouth breathing, overhanging restorations, cervical cavities, orthodontic appliances

Symptoms:-

  • Diffuse involvement and ballooning of the marginal and papillary gingiva.
  • Glossy, smooth edematous gingiva with blunting of margins and fetid odour
  • Coral pink color of gingiva becomes light red
  • Loss of stippling
  • Bleeding on probing
  • Painful in acute stages

Treatment:-

  • Removal of causative factors, elimination of mouth breathing habit, oral prophylaxis
  • Use of anti-plaque agents-Chlorhexidine
  • Patient education for maintenance of oral hygiene

2.    Drug induced Gingival Enlargement

Cause:-

There is a positive correlation between poor oral hygiene anddrug induced gingival hyperplasia the enlaqrgement occurs after 1-3 months of initiation of treatment

Mainly 3 drugs are implicated

  • Predisposing factors- cyclosporine. It is an immunosuppressor. Cyclosporine causes epithelial interaction and leads to gingival enlargement.
  • Nifedipine-anti hypertensive drug
  • Dilantin (Phynytoin)- anti-epileptic drug. Phenytoin may induce a decrease in collagen degradation as a result of production of an inactive fibroblastic collagenase. Phynytoin increasesthe numbee ofcell surface EGFreceptori9n human gingival fibroblasts which contribute to alteration of gingival connective tissue.

Symptoms:-

  • Painless bead like granular enlargement
  • Mulberry shaped, firm, resilient, pale pink with a lobulated surface
  • It begins with the involvement of papillary gingiva and gradual lingual, facial and Occlusal extension cover the crowns of involved teeth interfering with speech and chewing
  • Stippli9ng present
  • Bleeding on probing if superimposed with inflammation

Treatment:-

  • Physician’s consultation for alternative drugs
  • Patient education and maintenance of oral hygiene
  • Gingivectomy and gingivoplasty
  • The enlarged gingiva spontaneously disappears after 3-6 months of discontinuation of the drug

3.    Leukemic gingival Enlargement

Monocytic leukemia has a greater tendency to present as gingival enlargement due to tumor infiltrations.

Symptoms:-

  • Diffuse, marginal or discrete tumour like masses due infiltration of leukemic cells
  • Fiery red, friable, boggy shiny edematous surface
  • Teeth may be completely covered
  • Localized infiltrations are greenish brown in color
  • Necrotic ulcerations of the gingiva, pallor and lymphadenopathy are characteristic features
  • Anemia and tendency for infections

Treatment:-

  • Oral hygiene instructions
  • Specific treatment-chemotherapy

4.    Scorbutic Gingival Enlargement

Cause:-

Vitamin C an essential nutrient for the development of intercellular substance and collagen synthesis can sometimes presenta typical picture of gingival enlargement. Such enlargement is a conditioned response to plaque.

Symptoms:-

  • Purplish spongy gingiva with a smooth shiny friable surface
  • Marginal gingiva is affected first
  • Absence of stippling
  • Bleeds easily with psuedomembrane formation
  • Involvement of connective tissue of the periodontal ligament of teeth may lead to their mobility
  • Subperiosteal and perifollicularhaemorrhage
  • Patients may complain of joint pain

Treatment:-

Vitamin C supplements

5.    Granulomatous Gingival Enlargement

Causes:-

Local/systemic diseases:

  • Crohn’s disease
  • Sarcoidosis wegners granulomatosis
  • Melkerson-Rosenthal syndrome
  • Allergy to food stuffs

Symptoms:-

  • Distinct small irregular, edematous bluish red swelling affecting the interdental papilla, marginal and attached gingiva
  • Loss of stippling
  • Associated painless labial and facial swelling is strongly associated with Melkerson-Rosenthal Syndrome

Treatment:-

This does not regress despite good oral hygiene and the mainstay o treatment is gingivectomy. Steroids

6.    Idiopathic gingival Enlargement

Symptoms:-

  • Usually occurs before 20 years of age
  • Exuberantfirm,painless enlargement leading to partial or fullcoverageofthe crowns of teeth, impeding their eruption and interfering withspeech and lip closure
  • Stippling present with numerous papill;ary projections and a pebbled surface and a leathery consistency
  • Marginal, attached and papillary gingivaare affected

Treatment:-

If gingivectomy does not help much, because of a tendency for recurrence, then extraction of teeth followed by dentures

 

 

Fruits and the facts- when to eat and how to eat fruits

Eating fruit on empty stomach:-

We all think eating fruits means just buying fruits, cutting it and just popping it into our mouths. It’s not as easy as you think. It’s important to know how and when to eat the fruits. Fruits should be eaten on an empty stomach. If you eat fruits on empty stomach, it will play a major role to detoxify your system, supplying you with a great deal of energy for weight loss and other life activities.

If you eat two slices of bread and then a slice of fruit the slice of fruit is ready to go straight through the stomach into the intestines, but it is prevented from doing so due to the bread taken before the fruit. In the meantime the whole meal of bread and fruit rots and ferments and turns to acid. The minute the fruit comes into contact with the food in the stomach and digestive juices, the entire mass of food begins to spoil. So please eat your fruits on an empty stomach or before your meals. The fruit mixes with the putrefying of other food and produces gas and hence you will bloat. Greying hair, balding, nervous outburst and dark circles under the eyes all these will not happen if you take fruits on an empty stomach.

fruits

There is no such thing as some fruits, like orange and lemon are acidic, because all fruits become alkaline in our body. If you have mastered the correct way of eating fruits, you have the secret of beauty, longevity, health, energy, happiness and normal weight.

When you need to drink fruit juice then drink only fresh fruit juice, not from the cans, packs or bottles. Don’t even drink juice that has been heated up. But eating a whole fruit is better than drinking the juice. If you should drink the fresh fruit juice, drink it mouthful by mouthful slowly, because you must let it mix with your saliva before swallowing it.

Don’t eat cooked fruits because you don’t get the nutrients at all. You only get its taste, cooking destroys all the vitamins.

You can go on a 3-day fruit fast to cleanse or detoxify your body. Just eat fruits and drink fresh fruit juice throughout the 3 days and you will be surprised when your friends tell you how radiant you look.

Kiwi:-

kiwi

It is tiny but mighty fruit. This is a good source of potassium, magnesium, vitamin E and fiber. Its vitamin c content is twice than that of orange.

Apple:-

apple

An apple a day keeps the doctor away. Although the apple has a low vitamin C content, it has antioxidants and flavonoids which enhances the activity of vitamin C thereby helping to lower the risk of colon cancer, heart attack and stroke.

Women who eat at least one apple a day are 28 percent less likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those who don’t eat apples. Apples are loaded with soluble fiber, the key to blunting blood sugar swings.

Strawberry:-

strawberry

Strawberry is a protective fruit. Strawberries have the highest total antioxidant power among major fruits and protect the body from cancer causing, blood vessel clogging and free radicals.

 

Orange:-

orange

Orange is the sweetest medicine. Taking 2-4 orange a day may help keep colds away, lower cholesterol prevent and dissolve kidney stones as well as lessens the risk of colon cancer.

Watermelon:-

w.melon

It is the coolest thirst quencher. It is composed of 92% water it is also packed with a giant dose o glutathione, which helps boost our immune system. They are also a key source of lycopene the cancer fighting oxidant. Other nutrients found in watermelon are vitamin C and potassium.

Guava and papaya:-

papaya

 

They are the clear winners for their high vitamin c content. Guava is also rich in fiber, which helps prevent constipation. Papaya is rich in carotene which is good for your eyes.