Dental viva voice questions in Impression Materials

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Dental viva voice questions in Impression Materials

Impression materials Viva voice questions

  • what is syneresis?

fluid exuded from the impression seen as droplets on surface are called syneresis

  • What is imbibition?

Absorption of water by the impression when placed in water is called imbibition.

  • which impression shows least dimensional change upon disinfection?

Addition silicones have very little residual polymerization, making them the most dimensional you stable of all the dental materials. They are also highly biocompatible impression materials.

  • what is suspension?

Larger, visible, non-soluble particles in solvent. It exists as 2-phase system.

  • what is Emulsion?

Liquid droplets which are suspended in water.

  • Define colloids or Sols?

A solid, liquid, or a gaseous substance made up of large molecules or masses of small molecules that remain in suspension in a surrounding continuous medium of different matter.img_1337

  • what is Accelerator?

A compound that speeds up the reaction; also refers to the component called the catalyst in the reaction of impression materials.

  • what is Cast?

A dimensionally accurate reproduction of a part or parts of the oral cavity or extra oral facial structures produced in a durable hard material.

  • Define Addition reaction? 

A polymerisation reaction in which each polymer chain grows to a maximum length in sequence and no reaction byproduct is formed.

  • Define Condensation reaction?

A polymerisation process in which the polymer chains grow simultaneously and a reaction by-product is formed with associated shrinkage.

  • What is Cure? 

The reaction process that takes place primarily during the setting of a polymer but continues after setting.

  • Define Working time?

The total time from the start of mixing to the final time at which an impression tray can be fully seated without distortion.

  • Define Setting time?

The elapsed time from the star of mixing until the impression material becomes firm enough to resist permanent deformation .

  • what is permanent Deformation?

Irreversible change in shape that occurs when the polymer responds as a viscous liquid under an applied pressure.

  • what is pseudo plastic behaviour?

Characteristic of a material to become more fluid when an applied force is increased; this behaviour involves shear thinning and is strain rate dependent.

  • what is dashpot?

An element of the viscoeladtic model describing the viscous response of a polymer.

  • what are the ideal properties of an Impression material?
  1. They should be fluid enough to adapt to the oral tissue.
  2. they should be viscous enough to be contained in the tray that is seated in the mouth.
  3. while in the mouth, they should be transform into a rubbery or a rigid solid in a reasonable amount of time. Ideally the total Setting time should be less than 7 minutes
  4. The set impression should not distort or tear when removed from the mouth
  5. the impression should maintain itsdimensional stability after removal of a cast so that a second or third cast can be made from the same impression.
  6. The materials should be biocompatible
  7. The materials, associated processing equipment, and processing time should be cost-effective.

Periodontal pockets Classification, symptoms and Treatment

Periodontal pockets are caused by microorganism so and their products, which produces pathological tissue changes that lead to the depending of the gingival sulcus. Pocket formation starts as an inflammatory change in the connective tissue wall of the gingival sulcus.

Periodontal pocket

Classification of periodontal pockets

Gingival pocket

It is also known as pseudo pocket or relative pocket or false pocket. It is formed by gingival enlargement, without destruction of the underlying periodontal tissues. The sulcus is deepened because of the increased bulk of the gingiva.

Periodontal pocket

It is also known as absolute or true pocket. There is destruction of the supporting periodontal tissue; progressive pocket deepening leads to destruction of the supporting periodontal tissues and loosening and exfoliation of the teeth.

Supra bony pocket:

Also known as supracrestal or supra alveolar pocket. Bottom of the pocket is coronal to the underlying alveolar bone. Bone destruction pattern is horizontal.

Infrabony pocket:

Also known as subcrestal or intraalveolar pocket. Bottom  of the pocket is apical to the level of the adjacent alveolar bone. Bone destruction pattern is vertical.

classification based on tooth surfaces involved:

Simple pocket:

only one tooth surface involved

complex pocket:

involves more than one surface

compound or spiral pocket:

Originating on one tooth surface and twisting around the tooth to involve one or more additional surfaces.

Signs and symptoms

  • Gingival bleeding
  • Gingival suppurations
  • Tooth mobility
  • In some cases pus may be expressed by applying digital pressure.
  • Localised pain or deep pain in the bone.
  • There may be bluish red vertical zone from the gingival margin to the alveolar mucosa.

    How to manage periodontal pockets?

  • Reducing pocket depth and eliminating existing bacteria are important to prevent damage caused by the progression of periodontal disease and to help you maintain a healthy smile. Eliminating bacteria alone may not be sufficient to prevent disease recurrence. Deeper pockets are more difficult for you and your dental care professional to clean, so it’s important for you to reduce them. Reduced pockets and a combination of daily oral hygiene and professional maintenance care increase your chances of keeping your natural teeth – and decrease the chance of serious health problems associated with periodontal disease.
  • pocket irrigation- devices like squeeze bottles and blunt hypodermic needles can be used to irrigate the pocket with chemotherapeutic agents.
  • flap surgery to eliminate pockets.

Dental Materials Viva Voice Questions for 1st year BDS

Physical properties of Dental materials

dental viva

  1. What is the goal of the dentistry?

The goal of the dentistry is to maintain or improve the quality of life of the dental patients. This goal can be accomplished by preventing disease, relieving pain, improving mastication efficiency, enhancing speech and improving appearance.

  1. What are the dental materials used in dentistry?

The four groups of materials used in dentistry today are metals, ceramics, polymers and composites.

  1. What are the qualities of ideal restorative material?

An ideal restorative material would be

  • Be biocompatible
  • Bond permanently to tooth structure or bone
  • Match the natural appearance of tooth structure and other visible tissues
  • Exhibit properties similar to those of tooth enamel, dentin and other tissues
  • Be capable of initiating tissue repair or regeneration of missing or damaged tissues


  1. What is Acid-etching technique?

It is a process of roughening a solid surface by exposing it to an acid and thoroughly rinsing the residue to promote micromechanical bonding of an adhesive to the surface

  1. What is Adhesion?

When two substances are brought i9nto intimate contact each other, the molecules of one substance adhere or attracted to, molecules of the other substance. This force is called as adhesion. Adhesion may occur as a chemical or physical or a combination of both types

  1. What is Cohesion?

Force of molecular attraction between molecules or atoms of the same species.

  1. Define Coefficient of thermal expansion?

It is defined as the change in length per unit of the original length of a material when its temperature is raised 1 degree kelvin

  1. Define stress and what are the types of stresses?

Stress is defined as an internal force opposing an applied load.

Compressive stress:- internal resistance to a load that tends to compress or shorten a body

Tensile stress:– internal resistance to a load that tends to stretch or elongate a body

Shear stress:- a stress that tends to resist a twisting motion, or a sliding of one portion of a body over another is a shear or shearing stress

  1. What is strain?

Strain is defined as a deformation resulting from an applied load. Strain has no units to measure

  1. Define proportional limit?

It is defined as the maximum stress that can be induced without permanent deformation

  1. What is young’s modulus or modulus of elasticity?

Stress/strain ratio within the proportional limit is called elastic modulus or young’s modulus. It measures the relative rigidity or stiffness of material

  1. What are the different hardness tests?

Macro hardness tests:- Brinnel and Rockwell tests are classified as macro hardness tests and they are not suitable for brittle materials

Micro hardness tests:– the Knoop and Vickers tests are classified as micro hardness tests. Both of these tests employ loads less than 9.8 N

The SHORE and the BARCOL tests are used for measuring the hardness of rubbers and plastics

  1. What is Smear layer?

After the dentist has completed a tooth preparation for a filling, tenacious microscopic debris covers the enamel and dentin surfaces. This surface contamination, called the smear layer.

  1. What is Creep?

Time-dependent plastic strain of a material under a static load or constant stress

  1. Define Flow?

Flow is the deformation under a small static load even that associated with its own mass. Flow describes the behavior of amorphous material such as waxes.

  1. What is Hue?

Dominant color of an object

  1. What is Value?

Relative lightness of darkness of a color

  1. What is Chroma?

Degree of saturation of a particular hue

  1. Define Hardness?

The ability of a material to resist abrasion or wear

  1. What is Ductility?

Relative ability of a material to deform plastically under a tensile stress before it fractures

  1. What is Elastic modulus or Young’s modulus?

It is the ratio of elastic stress to elastic strain

  1. Define Plastic strain?

Deformation that is not recoverable when the externally applied force is removed

  1. Define Corrosion?

Chemical or electrochemical process in which a solid; usually a metal, is attacked by an environmental agent, resulting in partial or complete dissolution.

  1. What is Tarnish?

Surface discoloration on a metal, or as a slight loss or alteration of the surface finish or luster

  1. What is viscosity?

Resistance of a fluid to flow






Lasers in Conservative Dentistry and Endodontic

Laser technology has been developed rapidly in the last decade. New lasers with a wide range of characteristics are available now which are being used in various branches of dentistry. The application of these new technologies in endodontics has always been challenging. Today more experience and knowledge in applying lasers in operative dentistry and endodontics is available.

The interest in endodontic use of dental laser systems is increasing. There are several studies performed which prove the benefits of using a dental laser for cavity preparation over conventional rotary abrasives. Dental lasers are now set to perform almost every dental procedure which is to be carried out in the field of conservative dentistry and endodontics.

Conservative Dentistry:-

lasers in conservative dentistry

Cavity preparation:-

The science of conservative dentistry aims at saving natural teeth that have defects due to dental caries, trauma, abrasion or attrition and esthetic disharmony including developmental anomalies or tooth discoloration, as well as pulpal and or periapical diseases to maintain their inherent masticatory, phonetic and esthetic function and the physiologic integrity in harmonious relationship with the adjacent hard and soft tissues through diagnosis, treatment, post op evaluation and prevention.

One of the most commonly performed procedures in conservative dentistry is cavity preparation which done so that the diseased tooth is rid of all its infection and can receive a suitable restorative material. Cavity preparation is done conventionally by using a rotary abrasive. This results in a cavity form, which is irregular, and it damages the natural morphology of the dental hard tissues. The enamel prisms are destroyed and the dentinal tubules are packed with debris and dentinal muds.

Using a dental laser for this procedure has obvious advantages. The hard tissue dental laser such as the Er:YAG would retain the natural morphology of the dental hard tissues during cavity preparation. The Er:YAG laser radiation appears to be a promising alternative in treating dental hard tissues due to its thermo mechanical ablation properties and the lack o thermal side effects.. The laser cavity preparation results in clean, open and patent dentinal tubules and hence the step of acid-etch which is used in the conventional procedures can be skipped while using a dental laser. As there is absence of smear layer and debris in a laser cavity preparation, it can also be called a sterile cavity preparation as there is almost a 0% possibility of infections.

Tooth etching:-

Acid etching is widely used in clinical dentistry to facilitate the mechanical retention of resin based materials to teeth, in particular enamel surfaces. Several laser systems have been developed with the aim of modifying dental hard tissues and the Er:YAG laser may offer possible alternative to the acid etching technique. Even cementation of resin bonded partial dentures can be facilitated by the use of laser for etching the tooth surface.

Endodontic therapy:-

The endodontic therapy lasers have been used as treatment coadjuvant with refrence to0 both, low intensity laser therapy and high intensity laser treatment to increase the success rate of the clinical procedure. Low intensity laser therapy has the ability to produce analgesic, anti-inflammatory and biomodulation effects on the irradiated soft tissue thereby improving the wound healing process and giving the patient a better condition of the postoperative experience. High intensity laser irradiation on a soft tissue in a defocused mode could have similar effects to low intensity laser therapy. Depending on the wavelength, high intensity laser irradiation may be used on hard dental tissues such as on the root canal dentin cut surface after apicoectomy to produce structrural morphological changes, to remove the smear layer, to melt and recrystallize dentine or to expose dentinal tubules.

Disinfection of the root canal system:-

While the mechanical and manual challenges of root canal debridement and obturation remain, it has become increasingly clear that the largest proportion of endodontic disease, both pulpal and periradicular, is due to the presence of microorganisms. Therefore, treatment success is related very closely to the ability to remove these irritants and to prevent reinfection.

Application of Er:YAG laser radiation through a flexible waveguide helps to attain antibacterial effect, not only in the root canal walls, but also in the surrounding tissues. Therapeutic doses of laser radiation guarantee one-step disinfection, including of anaerobic microorganisms.


LASER Teeth whitening Procedure to get instant Teeth whitening

One of the biggest dental concerns that people face relates to the color of their teeth. Ideally, teeth should be a bright white but unfortunately this is often not the case. Stained teeth occur overtime and although this condition does not have any adverse health effects, it creates an unpleasant effect on a person’s smile. A great smile is an asset that everybody wants to have and the presence of yellow or brown cause people to become insecure about their smile. BY obtaining teeth whiteners, a person becomes much more confident in their smile, which will only have positive benefits socially.

Laser Bleaching:-

laser bleaching


The professional teeth whitening process begins with a minor cleaning and removal of any plaque along the gum line. Once this has been accomplished, a peroxide based gel is applied to the teeth. This gel contains a professional strength formula that ensures the laser accomplishes the maximum possible amount of teeth whitening.

Next, a special light is used to activate the gel. The process usually takes about an hour, and whitens teeth by as many as 10 shades. The laser tooth whitening process is usually accomplished in a single visit, reducing the need for repeated uses of the bleaching gel. This provides a great solution for people with sensitive teeth, and those who want instantaneous results.

Your dentist will then use a fluoride treatment on your teeth once the process in complete. This both strengthens your teeth and leaves a lustrous shimmer in its wake. Laser whitening is in the top tier in terms of tooth whitening costs, but this is more than made up for by the convenience and speed at which it can be accomplished.

As with any teeth whitening process, the effects will last based on how you take care of your teeth after optimal color has been reached. Dentists recommend the total avoidance of the top five culprits of tooth-tarnish: coffee, tea, blueberries, tobacco and dark soda. These should be abstained from completely for the first week.

Exercises which you can do during the First three months of Pregnancy

The first trimester is the most critical time in your pregnancy. Although the fetus at the end of three months is only about 4 inches long and weighs less than 1 ounce, all of its functions have begun to form — major organs and nervous system, heartbeat, arms, fingers, legs, toes, hair, and buds for future teeth.

This is not a time to skimp on food or count calories. You’re not quite eating for two people, but you do need extra nutrients for your growing fetus. The general recommendation is to eat about 300 extra calories a day. You’ll need to gain 25 to 35 pounds during your pregnancy. This will allow you to nourish your fetus and store nutrients for breast-feeding. Expect to gain at least 3 to 4 pounds during the first trimester.

Exercise is important during the first trimester of pregnancy and helps by:

  • Preventing/easing back pain and other discomforts
  • Boosting mood and energy levels
  • Preventing excess weight gain
  • Increasing muscle strength



  • Walking helps the heart and lungs work more efficiently with minimal stress on your joints
  • Other choices: swimming, low impact aerobics and cycling on a stationary bike
  • Strength training exercises; avoid lifting very heavy weights
  • Combination of aerobic exercise like swimming or walking and strengthening exercise like yoga
  • Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity activity, on most, if not all, days of the week

Signs which mean stop exercising

  • Chest, leg, joint or stomach pain
  • Dizziness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Vaginal bleeding or loss of fluid from vagina
  • Difficulty with walking
  • Uterine contractions

Helpful tips:-

  • Discuss with your doctor before starting any exercise
  • Although exercise is generally good for you as well as your baby, your doctor might advise you not to exercise if you have:
  1. Any heart or lung disease
  2. Pregnancy related high blood pressure
  3. Problems related to uterus
  4. Vaginal bleeding
  5. History of preterm labor during previous pregnancy
  6. Multiple pregnancies increasing the risk for preterm labor

Exercises to Avoid

Some exercises are never good during pregnancy. Avoid any contact sport in which someone could injure you or the baby with the force of a ball or her own body. Skip the slopes as you could collide with someone, something or suffer altitude sickness — restricting your baby’s oxygen supply. Put gymnastics, water skiing, scuba diving and horseback riding on hold during pregnancy. The jolts from riding can harm the baby.

Exercising With Caution

Even when you’re just going for a power walk, you need to take more than just your favorite tunes loaded onto your mp3 player. Dress appropriately in a supportive sports bra, loose-fitted clothing and athletic shoes with good traction. Take a bottle of water to stay hydrated. Warm-up beforehand and cool-down after. You should not feel hot or winded. Overheating is especially dangerous in these first three months.



Changes in the First 3 months of Pregnancy

If you know what changes can happen during pregnancy. It can help you face the months ahead with confidence.

Pregnancy has three Trimesters-what are these?

The entire duration of pregnancy is divided into 3 trimesters as follows

  1. First trimester:- begins from the first day of your last period and last till the end of week 13.
  2. Second trimester:– begins from week 14 and lasts till the end of week 26 (consists of 4th, 5th and 6th completed months of pregnancy
  3. Third trimester:– begins from week 27 and ends anywhere between week 38-week 42 (consists of 7th, 8th and 9th completed months of pregnancy.

1st trimester

Changes that you may experience during the first trimester


  • Some may bleed slightly during the first trimester
  • No need to worry; light spotting may indicate that the fertilized embryo has got attached to the wall of uterus

What you can do?

Call your doctor immediately if you have increased bleeding and cramps or sharp pain in the abdomen; this could be a sign of miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy (embryo getting implanted outside the uterus)

Painful breasts:-

  • One of the earliest signs of pregnancy, which can last till the last trimester Occurs because of hormonal changes, which are preparing your milk ducts to feed the baby
  • To overcome this problem- increase your bra size and wear a more supportive or sports bra.


  • High hormone levels during pregnancy may slow down the movement of food through your intestine
  • Your iron supplements may also lead to constipation

What you can do?

  • Take fiber-rich diet
  • Drink lots of fluids
  • Increase physical activity


Your body is working hard to support a growing baby; it is common to feel exhausted

What you can do?

  • Make sure you eat a healthy diet and get plenty of rest and sleep
  • Take iron supplements as prescribed by your doctor, as too little can lead to anemia
  • Eat more proteins; they help in iron absorption and production of red blood cells’ there by preventing anemia
  • Eat foods rich in iron such as jiggery, green leafy vegetables like spinach, mustard leaves, turnip green, cereals and sprouted pulses to prevent anemia

Food cravings and Aversions:-

Craving for food is common in some, while some may dislike food. Craving from time to time is normal, provided you are having healthy, low calorie foods. If you experience craving for non-foods like clay, dirt etc.’ then report to your doctor immediately, as this could be dangerous for you and your baby

Nausea or Morning sickness:-

  • Nausea is very common and occurs due to hormonal changes in your body; it can last through the first trimester
  • It is usually worst in the morning, hence also called as morning sickness
  • Nausea may be a warning sign that you are experiencing a protein deficiency

What you can do?

  • Eat small, frequent meals throughout the day
  • Eat foods low in fat and easy to digest
  • Eat meals high in protein
  • If your diet is low in protein, take protein supplements after consulting your doctor
  • Avoid smells such as cigarette smoke or perfume that can worsen nausea
  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • Avoid coffee/fluids containing caffeine and alcohol


Gingival Enlargement Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Gingival enlargement is usually caused by local conditions such as poor oral hygiene, food impaction or mouth breathing. Systemic conditions such as hormonal changes, drug therapy or tumor infiltrates may complicate the process or even set the stage for the development of unfavorable local conditions that lead to food impaction and difficulty with oral hygiene, functional and esthetic problems.

gingival enlargement

1.    Inflammatory Gingival Enlargement


  • Lack of oral hygiene
  • Common in adults, greater predilection during puberty
  • Females are affected more than males. Higher risk during pregnancy and treatment with oral contraceptive pills
  • Predisposing factors-Tooth crowding, mouth breathing, overhanging restorations, cervical cavities, orthodontic appliances


  • Diffuse involvement and ballooning of the marginal and papillary gingiva.
  • Glossy, smooth edematous gingiva with blunting of margins and fetid odour
  • Coral pink color of gingiva becomes light red
  • Loss of stippling
  • Bleeding on probing
  • Painful in acute stages


  • Removal of causative factors, elimination of mouth breathing habit, oral prophylaxis
  • Use of anti-plaque agents-Chlorhexidine
  • Patient education for maintenance of oral hygiene

2.    Drug induced Gingival Enlargement


There is a positive correlation between poor oral hygiene anddrug induced gingival hyperplasia the enlaqrgement occurs after 1-3 months of initiation of treatment

Mainly 3 drugs are implicated

  • Predisposing factors- cyclosporine. It is an immunosuppressor. Cyclosporine causes epithelial interaction and leads to gingival enlargement.
  • Nifedipine-anti hypertensive drug
  • Dilantin (Phynytoin)- anti-epileptic drug. Phenytoin may induce a decrease in collagen degradation as a result of production of an inactive fibroblastic collagenase. Phynytoin increasesthe numbee ofcell surface EGFreceptori9n human gingival fibroblasts which contribute to alteration of gingival connective tissue.


  • Painless bead like granular enlargement
  • Mulberry shaped, firm, resilient, pale pink with a lobulated surface
  • It begins with the involvement of papillary gingiva and gradual lingual, facial and Occlusal extension cover the crowns of involved teeth interfering with speech and chewing
  • Stippli9ng present
  • Bleeding on probing if superimposed with inflammation


  • Physician’s consultation for alternative drugs
  • Patient education and maintenance of oral hygiene
  • Gingivectomy and gingivoplasty
  • The enlarged gingiva spontaneously disappears after 3-6 months of discontinuation of the drug

3.    Leukemic gingival Enlargement

Monocytic leukemia has a greater tendency to present as gingival enlargement due to tumor infiltrations.


  • Diffuse, marginal or discrete tumour like masses due infiltration of leukemic cells
  • Fiery red, friable, boggy shiny edematous surface
  • Teeth may be completely covered
  • Localized infiltrations are greenish brown in color
  • Necrotic ulcerations of the gingiva, pallor and lymphadenopathy are characteristic features
  • Anemia and tendency for infections


  • Oral hygiene instructions
  • Specific treatment-chemotherapy

4.    Scorbutic Gingival Enlargement


Vitamin C an essential nutrient for the development of intercellular substance and collagen synthesis can sometimes presenta typical picture of gingival enlargement. Such enlargement is a conditioned response to plaque.


  • Purplish spongy gingiva with a smooth shiny friable surface
  • Marginal gingiva is affected first
  • Absence of stippling
  • Bleeds easily with psuedomembrane formation
  • Involvement of connective tissue of the periodontal ligament of teeth may lead to their mobility
  • Subperiosteal and perifollicularhaemorrhage
  • Patients may complain of joint pain


Vitamin C supplements

5.    Granulomatous Gingival Enlargement


Local/systemic diseases:

  • Crohn’s disease
  • Sarcoidosis wegners granulomatosis
  • Melkerson-Rosenthal syndrome
  • Allergy to food stuffs


  • Distinct small irregular, edematous bluish red swelling affecting the interdental papilla, marginal and attached gingiva
  • Loss of stippling
  • Associated painless labial and facial swelling is strongly associated with Melkerson-Rosenthal Syndrome


This does not regress despite good oral hygiene and the mainstay o treatment is gingivectomy. Steroids

6.    Idiopathic gingival Enlargement


  • Usually occurs before 20 years of age
  • Exuberantfirm,painless enlargement leading to partial or fullcoverageofthe crowns of teeth, impeding their eruption and interfering withspeech and lip closure
  • Stippling present with numerous papill;ary projections and a pebbled surface and a leathery consistency
  • Marginal, attached and papillary gingivaare affected


If gingivectomy does not help much, because of a tendency for recurrence, then extraction of teeth followed by dentures



Fruits and the facts- when to eat and how to eat fruits

Eating fruit on empty stomach:-

We all think eating fruits means just buying fruits, cutting it and just popping it into our mouths. It’s not as easy as you think. It’s important to know how and when to eat the fruits. Fruits should be eaten on an empty stomach. If you eat fruits on empty stomach, it will play a major role to detoxify your system, supplying you with a great deal of energy for weight loss and other life activities.

If you eat two slices of bread and then a slice of fruit the slice of fruit is ready to go straight through the stomach into the intestines, but it is prevented from doing so due to the bread taken before the fruit. In the meantime the whole meal of bread and fruit rots and ferments and turns to acid. The minute the fruit comes into contact with the food in the stomach and digestive juices, the entire mass of food begins to spoil. So please eat your fruits on an empty stomach or before your meals. The fruit mixes with the putrefying of other food and produces gas and hence you will bloat. Greying hair, balding, nervous outburst and dark circles under the eyes all these will not happen if you take fruits on an empty stomach.


There is no such thing as some fruits, like orange and lemon are acidic, because all fruits become alkaline in our body. If you have mastered the correct way of eating fruits, you have the secret of beauty, longevity, health, energy, happiness and normal weight.

When you need to drink fruit juice then drink only fresh fruit juice, not from the cans, packs or bottles. Don’t even drink juice that has been heated up. But eating a whole fruit is better than drinking the juice. If you should drink the fresh fruit juice, drink it mouthful by mouthful slowly, because you must let it mix with your saliva before swallowing it.

Don’t eat cooked fruits because you don’t get the nutrients at all. You only get its taste, cooking destroys all the vitamins.

You can go on a 3-day fruit fast to cleanse or detoxify your body. Just eat fruits and drink fresh fruit juice throughout the 3 days and you will be surprised when your friends tell you how radiant you look.



It is tiny but mighty fruit. This is a good source of potassium, magnesium, vitamin E and fiber. Its vitamin c content is twice than that of orange.



An apple a day keeps the doctor away. Although the apple has a low vitamin C content, it has antioxidants and flavonoids which enhances the activity of vitamin C thereby helping to lower the risk of colon cancer, heart attack and stroke.

Women who eat at least one apple a day are 28 percent less likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those who don’t eat apples. Apples are loaded with soluble fiber, the key to blunting blood sugar swings.



Strawberry is a protective fruit. Strawberries have the highest total antioxidant power among major fruits and protect the body from cancer causing, blood vessel clogging and free radicals.




Orange is the sweetest medicine. Taking 2-4 orange a day may help keep colds away, lower cholesterol prevent and dissolve kidney stones as well as lessens the risk of colon cancer.



It is the coolest thirst quencher. It is composed of 92% water it is also packed with a giant dose o glutathione, which helps boost our immune system. They are also a key source of lycopene the cancer fighting oxidant. Other nutrients found in watermelon are vitamin C and potassium.

Guava and papaya:-



They are the clear winners for their high vitamin c content. Guava is also rich in fiber, which helps prevent constipation. Papaya is rich in carotene which is good for your eyes.



Zika virus Infection Symptoms, Diagnosis and its effect in pregnant women

Zika virus is spread to people through mosquito bites. The most common symptoms of Zika virus disease are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting from several days to a week. Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon.

Where has Zika virus been found?

  • Prior to 2015, Zika virus outbreaks have occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands.
  • In May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed Zika virus infections in Brazil.
  • Currently, outbreaks are occurring in many countries.
  • Zika virus will continue to spread and it will be difficult to determine how the virus will spread over time.



  • About 1 in 5 people infected with Zika virus become ill (i.e., develop Zika).
  • The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Other common symptoms include muscle pain and headache. The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) for Zika virus disease is not known, but is likely to be a few days to a week.
  • The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week.
  • Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person for a few days but it can be found longer in some people.
  • Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon.
  • Deaths are rare.

How does Zika virus affect pregnant women and fetuses?

Pregnant women have the same risk as the rest of the population of being infected with Zika virus, which is transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Many women may remain unaware they have the virus, as they may not develop any symptoms. Only one in four people infected with Zika develops symptoms, and in those with symptoms the illness is usually mild. Brain growth may decrease in fetus due viral infection to zika

·       Microcephaly:- abnormal smallness of head.

In some Brazilian states where Zika virus has been circulating in recent months, there has been a marked increase in cases of newborns with microcephaly. According to a preliminary analysis of research carried out by Brazilian authorities, the greatest risk of microcephaly and malformations is associated with infection during the first trimester of pregnancy.


Should pregnant women travel to areas where Zika is circulating?

Before traveling, pregnant women should consult a doctor to get advice in this regard. The most important thing is to avoid mosquito bites to prevent infection with Zika, dengue or chikungunya. In this respect, pregnant women and women of reproductive age should follow the same recommendations as all travelers:

  • Protect skin from exposure to mosquitoes by wearing long sleeves, long pants and hats
  • Use mosquito repellent as indicated by health authorities and according to instructions on the label
  • If you sleep during the day, protect yourself with insecticide-treated mosquito netting
  • Identify and eliminate possible mosquito breeding sites.



  • The symptoms of Zika are similar to those of dengue and chikungunya, diseases spread through the same mosquitoes that transmit Zika.
  • See your healthcare provider if you develop the symptoms described above and have visited an area where Zika is found.
  • If you have recently traveled, tell your healthcare provider when and where you traveled.
  • Your healthcare provider may order blood tests to look for Zika or other similar viruses like dengue or chikungunya



  • No vaccine or medications are available to prevent or treat Zika infections.
  • Treat the symptoms:
    • Get plenty of rest
    • Drink fluids to prevent dehydration
    • Take medicines, such as acetaminophen or paracetamol, to relieve fever and pain
    • Do not take aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), like ibuprofen and naproxen. Aspirin and NSAIDs should be avoided until dengue can be ruled out to reduce the risk of hemorrhage (bleeding). If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication.
  • If you have Zika, avoid mosquito bites for the first week of your illness.
    • During the first week of infection, Zika virus can be found in the blood and passed from an infected person to another mosquito through mosquito bites.
    • An infected mosquito can then spread the virus to other people.

How to prevent zika virus infection?

Zika virus is spread to people through mosquito bites. So Zika viral infection can be prevented by avoiding the mosquito bites.

Mosquito control methods:-

  • Empty water from containers such as flower pots, birdbaths, pet water dishes, cans, gutters, tires and buckets regularly to disrupt the mosquito breeding cycle.
  • Keep windows and door screens in good working order to prevent mosquitoes from entering your home.
  • If possible, wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants while outdoors, consider staying indoors early in the morning and evening when mosquitoes are most active.
  • Maintain your swimming pool to prevent mosquito breeding, and report abandoned pools to your
  • Use mosquito netting over infants carriers when infants are outdoors.


Beauty tips with Chocolate Powder

We all know that chocolate powder is used in the preparation of cakes, chocolates, cupcakes and sweets. Along with these uses chocolate powder can be used in beauty tips also. The anti-oxidant content is high in chocolate powder. These anti-oxidants prevent free radicals. Chocolate facial is getting popular by day. Rich in antioxidants, chocolate helps reverse the signs of ageing. It moisturizes your skin, protects the sun damage and tightens by maintaining the collagen production.

Cocoa Powder Benefits 

  • Adds a glow to your face
  • Moisturizes your skin
  • Is rich in antioxidants
  • Helps fight ageing
  • Promotes collagen production for tighter skin
  • Prevents blemishes


  1. Chocolate powder and Oat meal powder pack:-

Ingredients needed for this pack:-

  • 1 table spoon of chocolate powder
  • 1 table spoon of oatmeal powder
  • 2 table spoons o curd

Mix all these ingredients properly and apply on the face. Just remember to wash your ace before applying this pack. Wait for 15 minutes after that wash your face with slight hot water. This pack will gives you smooth skin.

  1. Chocolate powder and olive oil pack:-

Ingredients needed:-

  • 1 table spoon chocolate powder
  • ½ table spoon olive oil
  • ½ table spoon sugar

Mix these ingredients properly and apply on y7our ace. Gently rub the ace with your fingers in a circular motion. Don’t rub under the eyes. This mix acts as a good scrubber to your facial skin. Wash your face after the pack is completely dried. Scrubbing action of this mix can remove dirt and dead cells from the skin and give smooth and bright skin.

  1. Chocolate powder and Milk pack:-

Ingredients needed:-

  • 1 table spoon chocolate powder
  • Pinch of salt
  • 2 table spoons of milk

Mix these ingredients and make it as a paste. Apply this paste to your face and wait for 15 minutes. Wash the ace with slight hot water. This pack cleans the skin and improves the brightness of the skin.

  1. Chocolate powder and Honey pack:-

Ingredients needed:-

  • 1 table spoon chocolate powder
  • 1 tablespoon honey
  • ½ table spoon butter

Mix these ingredients and make it as a paste. Apply this paste to the face and wait for 20 minutes. Wash your face with slight hot water. This pack removes dust and dirt from the skin.

  1. Chocolate powder and egg pack:-

Ingredients needed:-

  • 2 table spoons of chocolate powder
  • 1 table spoon olive oil
  • 1 egg yolk

Mix these ingredients and apply this pack to the face. Wait for 20 minutes after that wash your face with water. This pack provides moisture to the skin; so this is especially useful in winter season.





Top 10 Health Benefits of Tomato

The tomato is the edible, often red berry-type fruit. The tomato is consumed in diverse ways, including raw, as an ingredient in many dishes, sauces, salads, and drinks. The tomato is now grown and eaten around the world. It is used in diverse ways, including raw in salads, and processed into ketchup or tomato soup. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried, used to make salsa,or pickled. Tomato juice is sold as a drink and is used in cocktails such as the Bloody Mary.

One serving of red, ripe, raw tomatoes (one cup or 150 grams) is a good source of Vitamins A, C, K, folate and potassium. Tomatoes are naturally low in sodium, saturated fat, cholesterol, and calories. Tomatoes also provide thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, magnesium, phosphorus and copper, all of which are necessary for good health. On top of that, one serving of tomatoes gives you 2 grams of fiber, which is 7% of the daily recommended amount. Tomatoes also have a relatively high water content, which makes them a filling food. In general eating plenty of fruits and vegetables, including tomatoes, confers protection against high blood pressure, high cholesterol, strokes, and heart disease.


Health benefits of Tomato

  1. Anti -cancer benefits:-

Risk for many cancer types starts out with chronic oxidative stress and chronic unwanted inflammation. For this reason, foods that provide us with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory support are often foods that show cancer prevention properties. Prostate cancer is by far the best-researched type of cancer in relationship to tomato intake. The jury verdict here is clear: tomatoes can definitely help lower risk of prostate cancer in men

Along with prostate cancer and non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and breast cancer are the two best-studied areas involving tomatoes and cancer risk. Research on tomatoes and breast cancer risk has largely focused on the carotenoid lycopene, and there is fairly well documented risk reduction for breast cancer in association with lycopene intake.

  1. Cardiovascular Support:-

Dietary intake of tomatoes, consumption of tomato extracts, and supplementation with tomato phytonutrients (like lycopene) have all been shown to improve the profile of fats in our bloodstream. Specifically, tomato intake has been shown to result in decreased total cholesterol, decreased LDL cholesterol, and decreased triglyceride levels. It’s also been shown to decrease accumulation of cholesterol molecules inside of macrophage cells. Many phytonutrients in tomatoes are likely to be involved with the improvement of our blood fat levels

  1. Supports bone health:-

Bone health is another area of growing interest in tomato research. Interestingly, the connection of tomato intake to bone health involves the rich supply of antioxidant in tomatoes. We don’t always think about antioxidant protection as being important for bone health, but it is; and tomato lycopene (and other tomato antioxidants) may have a special role to play in this area. In a recent study, tomato and other dietary sources of lycopene were removed from the diets of postmenopausal women for a period of 4 weeks to see what effect lycopene restriction would have on bone health. At the end of 4 weeks, women in the study started to show increased signs of oxidative stress in their bones and unwanted changes in their bone tissue.

  1. Healthy Skin:- Collagen, the skins support system, is reliant on vitamin C as an essential nutrient that works in our bodies as an antioxidant to help prevent damage caused by the sun, pollution and smoke, smooth wrinkles and improve overall skin texture. Tomatoes make your skin look great. Beta-carotene, also found in carrots and sweet potatoes, helps protect skin against sun damage. Tomatoes’ lycopene also makes skin less sensitive to UV light damage, a leading cause of fine lines and wrinkles.
  2. Regulates Blood Sugar:-Tomatoes can keep your blood sugar in balance. Tomatoes are a very good source of chromium, which helps to regulate blood sugar.
  3. Tomatoes are good for your eyes:-The Vitamin A found in tomatoes is fantastic for improving your vision. In addition, eating tomatoes is one of the best foods to eat to prevent the development of night blindness.
  4. Healthy hair:-Drinking tomato juice constantly improves the appearance and texture of hair, and since it is rich in vitamin k, it helps to strengthen the tufts of hair and increase its luster as well as the revitalization of growth.
  5. Rich Source of Vitamins and Minerals:- A single tomato can provide about 40% of the daily vitamin C requirement. Vitamin C is a natural antioxidant which prevents against cancer-causing free radicals from damaging the body’s systems. It also contains abundant vitamin A and potassium, as well as iron. Potassium plays a vital role in maintaining nerve health and iron is essential for maintaining normal blood health. Vitamin K, which is essential in blood clotting and controls bleeding, is also abundant in tomatoes.
  6. Digestive Health: Tomatoes keep the digestive system healthy by preventing both constipation and diarrhea. It also prevents jaundice and effectively removes toxins from the body. Furthermore, tomatoes have a large amount of fiber, which can bulk up stool and reduce symptoms of constipation. A healthy amount of fiber helps to stimulate peristaltic motion in the smooth digestive muscles, and also release gastric and digestive juices. This can regulate your bowel movements; thereby improving your overall digestive health and helping you avoid conditions like colorectal cancer.
  7. Prevents Urinary Tract Infections: Tomato intake also reduces the incidence of urinary tract infections, as well as bladder cancer. This is because tomatoes are high in water content, which can stimulate urination, so tomatoes are a diuretic in certain ways. This increases the elimination of toxins from the body, as well as excess water, salts, uric acid, and some fat as well!

How to Select and Store Tomatoes?

Choose tomatoes that have rich colors. Deep reds are a great choice, but so are vibrant oranges/tangerines, brilliant yellows, and rich purples. Tomatoes of all colors provide outstanding nutrient benefits. Tomatoes should be well shaped and smooth skinned with no wrinkles, cracks, bruises, or soft spots. They should not have a puffy appearance since that characteristic is often associated with inferior flavor and may also result in excess waste during preparation. Ripe tomatoes will yield to slight pressure and will have a noticeably sweet fragrance.

Since tomatoes are sensitive to cold, and it will impede their ripening process, store them at room temperature and out of direct exposure to sunlight. They will keep for up to a week, depending upon how ripe they are when purchased. To hasten the ripening process, place them in a paper bag with a banana or apple since the ethylene gas that these fruits emit will help speed up the tomato’s maturation. If the tomatoes begin to become overripe, but you are not yet ready to eat them, place them in the refrigerator (if possible, in the butter compartment which is a warmer area), where they will keep for one or two more days. Removing them from the refrigerator about 30 minutes before using will help them to regain their maximum flavor and juiciness. Whole tomatoes, chopped tomatoes and tomato sauce freeze well for future use in cooked dishes. Sun-dried tomatoes should be stored in an airtight container, with or without olive oil, in a cool dry place.

Ketchup can be a surprisingly good source of tomato nutrients, including lycopene. But if you are going to purchase tomatoes in the form of ketchup, we recommend that you choose organic ketchup. We make this recommendation not only because you’re likely to avoid unwanted pesticide residues and other contaminants if you purchase organic, but also because we’ve seen a recent study showing higher lycopene content in organic versus non-organic ketchup