Category Archive Dental Care

Gum Bleeding Causes & Symptoms to Identify Gingivitis!

gum bleedingMedical word for gum bleeding is “gingivitis”. It is defined as Inflammation of gums that is caused when plaque accumulates in the spaces between the gums and teeth.

One fine morning when you woke up after a good sleep and started brushing your teeth, you realized that you were spitting a slight amount of blood with the foam. After a while, you may notice the bleeding even while eating or at times spontaneously.

Never ignore bleeding gums as they might be the mirror to a more serious problem.

Causes for Gum Bleeding:

Poor Oral Hygiene
Improper brushing and flossing techniques result in plaque buildup on the teeth. This plaque buildup leads to red, swollen, painful and irritated gums. Gums may then bleeding at the slightest provocation. Poor oral hygiene plays major role in many dental it is very important to keep the oral cavity healthy.

Mal Positioned Teeth
It is very difficult to clean the irregularly arranged teeth. Plaque accumulation will occur between the teeth and under the sulcus area. This leads to gingival irritation and gum bleeding.

Trauma to The Gum
Overzealous brushing and using hard bristle tooth brush can cause trauma to the gingiva. Due to this trauma gingiva bleeds.

Vitamin C Deficiency
Vitamin C is necessary for gingival health. Decreased levels of vitamin C can cause bleeding from gums. Read How to Overcome Vitamin C Deficiency

Vitamin K Deficiency
Vitamin K is required for blood coagulation. Gut microbes play major role in the synthesis of vitamin K.prolonged use of oral antibiotic destroy the gut microbes which results in vitamin K affects the blood coagulation process and it can cause bleeding from gums.

Hormonal Changes
Hormonal changes occur in females at the time of puberty and pregnancy. These changes may cause bleeding gums.  Usage of blood thinners as a regular medication may also cause the bleeding in gums.

Apart from these other reasons are

  • Stress
  • Radiation Therapy
  • HIV
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Tobacco Usage
  • Liver Diseases
  • Cancer Such as Leukaemia (Blood Cancer)

What are the Symptoms of Gum Bleeding (gingivitis)?

For many people with gingivitis, this inflammation is not painful.

  • Gingiva appears red in color
  • Swollen gums
  • Painful, irritated gums
  • Gums may bleed at slightest provocation such as brushing or probing

A severe case of gingivitis is marked by swollen, bleeding gums and swollen lymph nodes around the jaw and neck

How to Overcome Gum Bleeding?

If you catch gingivitis early, it can be reversed and healed with proper oral hygiene. But if it is left untreated, gingivitis can worsen and ultimately lead to tooth loss

  • Scaling and root planning-to remove the plaque and to soften the rough areas on the root
  • Use Antibiotic mouth wash
  • Daily twice brushing
  • Use dental floss daily
  • Oral antibiotics can be given to treat persistent areas of gum inflammation.
  • Quit the habits like smoking and chewing tobacco
  • Orthodontic correction is needed for mal positioned teeth
  • Certain medications are risk factors for gum consult your doctor before using steroids, oral contraceptives

    What are the Methods to Prevent Gum Bleeding?

  • Maintain proper and consistent oral hygiene
  • Take balanced diet
  • Use fluoride toothpaste
  • Floss every day
  • Regular dental visits
  • Use soft bristled tooth brush
  • Avoid overzealous brushing
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Avoid extremely cold or hot foods

So,the next time you notice bleeding gums, you know well not to neglect it and visit a dentist at the earliest

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Tooth Wear Causes! Symptoms & Prevention Treatment Methods

Tooth wear described as the progressive loss of a tooth’s surface due to actions other than those which cause tooth decay or dental trauma.

Teeth wear increases with age. It is the irreversible loss of tooth surface. The resulting structural loss can harm appearance, impair function and cause sensitivity.

tooth wear orgTooth wear is caused by

  • Attrition
  • Abrasion
  • Corrosion
  • Abfraction


Attrition is the loss of tooth structure by mechanical forces from opposing teeth initially affects the enamel and if unnoticed may proceed to the underlying dentin.


  1. bruxism
  2. malocclusion
  3. constant chewing tobacco.


  • Polished facets on enamel surfaces.
  • Flattening of incisal edges.
  • Dentin is exposed
  • Sensitivity of dentin
  • Decreased clinical crown height.


Abrasion is the progressive loss of hard tooth substances caused by mechanical actions other than mastication or tooth to tooth contact.


  1. Incorrect tooth brushing techniques
  2. Seen in individuals who use their teeth as a tool (to hold pins, nails, to remove bottle caps)


Lesions are typically rounded or “v” shaped ditches seen on the bucal/labial surfaces in the region of cej

Most commonly affected teeth are canines and premolars.

Notching of the incisal edges on upper central incisor teeth is often seen as aresult of habit such as biting nails,thread,hairpins.


Progressive loss of tooth substance by chemical or acid dissolution, and no bacteria are involved.


  1. Too frequent consumption of carbonated drinks.
  2. excessive consumption of acidic fruit juices
  3. people who suffer from gastro esophageal disease.
  4. people who suffer from eating disorders.
  5. chewing tobacco and chewing gums
  6. drymouth ,which increases the risk of damage from acid attack.
  7. medcation such as vitamin c,aspirin,iron preparations.
  8. chlorinated swimmingpools


  • Teeth appears yellow in color due to darker dentin showing through thin outer enamel.
  • Teeth appearing smooth and glazed
  • Front teeth edge becomes squarish,transparent,eventually becoming shorter.
  • T6eeht becoming sensitive to hot,cold or sweet foods and drinks.
  • Occlusal surfaces of back teeth showing smooth,concave surfaces


Abfraction is the microstructural loss of tooth substance in areas of stress concentration.

This occurs most commonly in the cervical region of teeth, where flexure may lead to a breaking away of the thin layer of enamel as well as microfracture of cementum and dentin.


Occlusal forces which cause the tooth to flex, cause small enamel flecks to break off, inducing the abrasive lesions.

Abfraction is associated with

  • Anterior open bite
  • Occlusal restorations that changes the cusp movements.
  • Abnormal tongue movements.


Classical wedge shaped lesion with sharp rims at the cervicoenameljunction.

The extent of the lesion is dependent on the size,duration,direction,frequency and location of forces concerned.

Recurrently failing cervical restorations.

Combined mechanism of tooth wear:

  • Attrition-abfraction
  • Abrasion-abfraction
  • Corrosion-abfraction
  • Attrition-corrosion
  • Abrasion-corrosion

Treatment of Tooth Wear:

Reconstruct the affected teeth by giving restorations, crowns.

Use desensitizing toothpastes.

Diet counseling

Splint therapy to treat bruxism.

Prevention Methods for Tooth Wear:

  • Avoid brushing shortly after acid exposure
  • Use the remineralising toothpastes which increase surface hardness of teeth.
  • Reduce the frequency of consumption of acidic fruits and juices.
  • Use less abrasive toothpaste
  • Avoid overzealous brushing
  • Change the habits such as pencil biting, holding needles, nails with teeth
  • Low pH mouth rinses should be avoided

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How to Avoid Extrinsic Dental Stains

teeth-stained-by-nicotineStains located on the outer surface of the tooth structure and caused by external agents. Mouth is subjected to many exogenous and endogenous substances that stains the teeth. Also the oral flora contains many type of color producing deposits which also causes stains. Discoloration include brown, black, gray, green, orange and yellow. Teeth especially, the front teeth appear while talking and smiling. If your teeth are white in color without any stains then you can talk or smile confidently.

The external stains are caused by predisposing factors and other factors.

Predisposing factors are

Poor oral hygiene

Enamel defects

Salivary dysfunction

Saliva plays major role in removal of debris from the outer and interdental surfaces. Diminished saliva production leads to accumulation of stain producing food, beverages, tobacco and other topical agents in the pits ,fissures and defects in the outer surface of enamel. These accumulated food particles or topical agents produce black or brown stains on the tooth surface

Other factors

  • Plaque and calculus
  • Food and beverages
  • Color producing bacteria
  • Tobacco
  • Metallic compounds
  • Topical medications

Plaque and calculus:

Most common cause bof extrinsic stains is poor oral hygiene. Dental plaque and calculus produce brown /black discoloration of tooth surface and interdental area.

Food and beverages:

Accumulation of stain producing foods and beverages leads to brown discoloration of tooth. Tannins are present in the Tea, coffee, other beverages. Accumulation of these tanins on the tooth surface gives brown stains.


Tobacco stains cover the cervical one third to one half of the tooth. Tobacco stains are dark brown and black in color. ex:

  • Cigarettes
  • Cigars
  • Chewing tobacco

Pan chewing produces red black stains on the teeth, gingiva and oral mucosa.

Chromogenic bacteria:

Actinomyces species  action on plaque produce  H2S(hydrogen sulphide).hydrogen sulphide reacts with iron in the saliva and gingival exudate and produce ferric sulphide which is black in color. Pencillium, aspergellus species produce Green stains, Flavobacterium lutenscens produce orange color.

Topical medication:

  • Chlorhexidine mouthwash-After several weeks of use it stains the teeth in brown color.
  • Fe containing solutions used to treat iron deficiency anemia produce black stains.
  • Potassium permanganate mouthwash-violet black strains
  • Silver nitrate-black stains
  • Stannous fluoride-brown stains
  • Some systemic medication such as Minocycline, Doxycycline

Metallic compounds:

Iron, manganese, silver reacts with plaque and produce black stains on the tooth surface. Mercury produces blue green stains.


There has been a recent increase in interest in the treatment of tooth staining and discoloration.

  • Scaling
  • Ultrasonic cleaning, air-jet polishing with an abrasive powder
  • Cessation of habits such as smoking, pan chewing.
  • Bleaching
  • Salivary dysfunction should be treated

Bleaching (tooth whitening):-

The technique involved in the bleaching process is oxidation. With proper patient selection, bleaching is safe, easy and inexpensive modality that is used to treat many types of tooth fiscoloration. Usually bleaching is not indicated for the primary teeth. Two types of bleaching methods are is vital bleaching and the other is non -vital bleaching.


  • Use a straw: sipping beverages through a straw is believed to help keep teeth staining beverages away from the teeth, the front teeth in use straw for cola and juices.
  • Don’t retain things in your mouth for long period of time
  • Swish with water: its not6 always convenient to brush your teeth after having food or drink. Enamel is highly vulnerable to abrasion from tooth brushing for up to 30 minutes after the consumption of an acidic food or it’s safer simply to swish with water and brush later , once the enamel has had a chance to reharden or chew sugarless gum after eating or drinking.
  • Daily twice brushing
  • Regular flossing
  • Avoid over consumption of tea, coffee and other beverages
  • Avoid color producing food
  • Avoid smoking, pan chewing
  • Regular dental visits

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Brushing Methods For Fresh Breath

Proper method of brushing is necessary for oral health. the way of brushing and the time spent for brushing are more important than the selection of toothbrush.tongue should be cleaned along with brushing. oral health is like a lock, brushing is like a key. if you turn the key of brushing in the wrong direction, it would lock up your fresh breath.if you turn it in the right direction, the fresh breath is yours.we all know that daily twice brushing is make it as a habit to say good morning and goodnight after brushing.sufficient brushing time is 2 minutes.

Dental_BrushingTeethTypes of brushing methods:

There are several different acceptable tooth brushing methods are used because each patient has different needs.not one method is perfect for all patients.some patients may use more than one method.

  • Bass method
  • Roll method
  • Fones method
  • Stillman’s method
  • Charters method

Bass method:-

it is also known as sulcus cleaning method.most widely accepted method.most effective method for plaque removal.

Toothbrush bristles arelaced at 45 degree angle to the gingiva and moved in asmall circular motion.strokes are repeated around 20 times,3 teeth at a time.

On the lingual aspest of anterior teeth,the brush is inserted vertically and the heel of the brush is pressed into the gingival sulcus and interdental surfaces at 45 degree angle,the bristles are then actuated.

The chewing surfaces are cleansed by pressing the bristles firmly against the pits and fissures


  • Effective method for removing plaque adjacent to and directly beneath the cervical areas and sulcus
  • Provides good gingival stimulation.
  • Easy to learn


  • Overzealous brushing may cause injury to gingiva
  • Not useful for the patients who do not have the muscle development

Roll method:

In this method direct the toothbrush bristles towards the root of the side of the brush on the gingiva and have the plastic part of the brush even with the tooth.when the plastic portion is even with the tooth press the filaments against the gingiva and roll the brush over the teeth.the wrist is turned slightly and the filaments follow the contour of the teeth.

Fones method:

This method is indicated for young children and others who do not have the muscle development for more complex technique.

  • The child is asked to stretch his\her arm such that they are parell to the floor.
  • The child is then asked to make big circles which are redused in diameter until very small circles are made in front of the mouth.
  • Now,brushing is done in circular motion in the teeth making sure that the teeth and gums are covered



  • Effective plaque removal
  • Easy to learn
  • Physically\emotionally handicapped individuals can use this technique
  • Provides good gingival stimulation


It can cause trauma to gingiva

Interdental areas are not properly cleaned.

Stillman’s method:

Like the boss method the filaments are placed at a 45 degree angle to the tooth.unlike the boss method the filaments are placed half in the sulcus and half in the gingiva.same stroke is used as the boss method.

Charter’s method:

Position the filaments towards the chewing surface of the the sides of the filaments against the enamel and angle them at a 45 degrees to the tooth.vibrate the filaments gently but firmly,keeping the filaments against the tooth.reposition on the next set of teeth.

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Select The Best Toothpaste for Your Teeth

Toothpaste also called as dentifrice. Toothpaste plays a major role in the brushing. Toothpaste selection is also as important as toothbrush selection. it removes the plaque, film of bacteria that form on the teeth anu improves the mechanical brushing and cleaning power of toothbrush.

Toothpaste Ingredients( composition):-

The ingredients in the toothpaste are abrasives, fluorides, surfactants, humectants, flavoring agents, preservatives

Abrasives:-These insoluble particles remove plaque from the is a major component in the toothpaste. The abrasives used in the toothpaste are

  • Aluminium hydroxide
  • Calcium carbonate
  • Calcium hydrogen phosphates
  • Silicas
  • Zeolites

Fluorides in Toothpaste :-various forms of fluorides are used. Fluoride is an active ingredient to prevent caries or cavities. Small amount of fluoride present in plants, animals and natural water sources. The additional fluoride in the toothpaste has beneficial effect on the formation of enamel and bones. Various forms of fluorides are

  • Sodium fluoride-most commonly used
  • Stannous fluoride
  • Sodium monofluorophosphate

Surfactants:-these are foaming agents which enables uniform distribution of toothpaste, improving its cleaning power.surfactants used in the toothpaste are

  • Sodium lauryl sulphate
  • Sodium N-lauryl sarcosinate

Humectants:- humectants are used to prevent water loss in the toothpaste. Humectants used in the toothpaste are

  • Glycerol
  • Propylene
  • Sorbitol
  • Glycol

Flavoring agents:-saccharin and other sweeteners are used to provide taste. These agents do not provide tooth decay

Binders/thickening agents:-these are used to stabilize the toothpaste formula. Commonly used binders are

  • Mineral colloids
  • Natural gums
  • Synthetic gums
  • Seaweed colloids

Coloring agents:-these agents give color to the toothpaste.

Preservatives:-Alcohols, Benzoates, Formaldehyde are added to prevent bacterial growth on the organic binders and humectants.

toothpasteBest Toothpaste for Sensitive Teeth:-

Desensitizing toothpastes usually contains potassium nitrate or strontium chloride. Calcium based desensitizing toothpastes are also available.

Potassium nitrate toothpaste:- High concentration of potassium ions depolarize the nerve endings in the pores of the exposed dentin, and block the transmission of pain signals from the surface of the teeth to the nerve inside.

Calcium based desensitizing toothpaste:- These toothpastes give more immediate relief. Protect the nerve endings by plugging open pores in exposed dentin with calcium can be rubbed on with your finger on the sensitive tooth.

If you are using desensitizing toothpaste then do not rinse after brushing for at least 30 minutes. By spitting thoroughly instead of rinsing with water, you will allow the thin coating of toothpaste remaining on your teeth to provide relief

Best Toothpaste for Gum Health:

Healthy gums are necessary for the good oral hygiene so don’t ignore the gum problems. If gum problems are left untreated it leas lo severe periodontitis which results in tooth loss. Gum bleeding is one of the common oral health issue. Stannous complex containing toothpaste gives highest level of protection against the plaque bacteria that can cause gum problems. Regular use of these toothpastes can prevent gum problems in 4 weeks. A powerful stannous containing toothpaste can prevent gum problems and eliminate plaque at the gum-line and inhibits bacteria which causes gum problems.Minor bleeding during brushing or flossing can be a sign of gum problem so, if you observe any bleeding from gums consult dentist for the treatment and the dentist can suggest best toothpaste for your gum health. Triclosan containing toothpaste has been shown to offer a clinically useful improvement in gum health.

Anti Calculus Toothpaste:

Pyrophosphate containing toothpastes inhibit the mineralization of dental plaque and hence the buildup of tartar. Tartar is a hard yellowish material that must be scraped away with metal tools. Anti tartar toothpaste will helpful in slowing new build up on the teeth. This toothpaste can not remove the existing tartar. A professional dental cleaning is the only way to remove existing tartar. Brushing with regular toothpastes removes the acid deposits and food particles, but tartar will remain on the teeth. Sodium pyrophosphate is the active ingredient in the anti calculus toothpaste. Some people may experience more tooth sensitivity after using this product, since the enamel layer becomes a little thinner overtime. Others may develop canker sores due to the higher sodium content. Those who are prone to canker sore formation might want to avoid toothpaste with high levels of sodium based compounds

Best Teeth Whitening Toothpaste:

These do not typically contain bleaches, instead, they contain relatively coarse abrasives which function by abrading the stains on the tooth surface, giving a whitening effect. Whitening toothpaste can whiten teeth slightly by removing surface stains. Whitening toothpaste can also be used after bleaching to help maintain results. When used twice a day, whitening toothpaste can taken from 2 to 6 weeks to make teeth appear whiter.

so many people are concerned about the color of their teeth. Professional teeth whitening treatment is costlier so most of the people depends on whitening toothpaste to get white teeth. Whitening toothpaste cannot remove the internal stains or greyish stains of teeth. Excessive use of these toothpastes can damage your teeth enamel over time. If you want to use whitening toothpaste, then look for a brand that has a seal of approval from a reputable dental organization such as American Dental Association seal of acceptance. This seal indicates that the toothpaste is efficient at removing surface stains. It is better to consult a dentist for professional whitening treatment than wasting money on number of toothpaste tubes.

Ayurveda or Herbal Toothpaste:

Herbal toothpaste does not contain dyes or artificial flavoring agents.Commonly used ingredients in the herbal toothpaste are neem, clove, turmeric, pudin, pippali, peelu and maju phal.neem toothpaste and mouthwash can cure the gum oils are actually the most effective ingredient to kill germs in the mouth.turmeric and cloves provide great protection and remove bacteria.pudin and pippali refresh the gums.

Tips to Select the Best Toothpaste:

  • Use fluoride toothpaste to prevent cavities
  • Children may use children toothpaste which contains a lower fluoride concentration, and parents should have close supervision while brushing.
  • When your teeth feel sensitive, you should consult a dentist to find out the cause. Take the dentist opinion about the use of desensitizing toothpaste
  • Take dentist opinion before using whitening toothpaste.
  • Herbal toothpastes are also available for those who don’t want to use artificial ones

Quantity of Toothpaste for Brushing

Simply squeeze a pea sized dab of paste on the top half of your brush. Children under 6 years, however, should only be given a very small baby pea sized dab of toothpaste on their toothbrush.

Tooth Powder:

It is mildly abrasive powder and is an alternative to toothpaste. Fluoride and non- fluoride tooth powders are available. Commonly used ingredients in the tooth powder are bentonite, baking soda, clove powder, peppermint leaves, tea tree extracts. To use the powder, measure out a small amount, dip a wet toothbrush into it, and brush teeth thoroughly. it is inexpensive when compared to toothpaste.

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Receding Gums Causes | Treatment

Gingival recession (Receding Gums) is the exposure in the roots of the teeth caused by a loss of gum tissue and/or retraction of gingival margin from the crown of the teeth. gum recession is a common problem in adults over the age of 40, but it may also occur starting from the teens.

When gum recession occurs pockets or gaps form between the tooth and gumline, making it easy for disease causing bacteria to build up. if left untreated, the supporting tissue and bone structure of the teeth can be severely damaged, and may ultimately result in tooth loss.

Receding Gums Causes:-

receding gumsPeriodontal diseases:- Most common cause is periodontal disease. Bacterial gum infections that destroy gum tissue and supporting bone that hold your tooth in place

Overaggressive brushing:-if you brush your teeth too hard or the wrong way, it can cause the enamel wear and your gums to recede.

Insufficient dental care:-inadequate brushing and flossing allows bacteria to build up between the teeth and below the gumline, which leads to painless chronic inflammation of the gums and gradual recession, with increase tooth mobility as the supporting bone is lost

Hereditary:-thin, fragile or insufficient gingival tissue predisposes to gingival recession. some people may be more susceptible to gum disease. infact, studies show that 30% of the population may be predisposed to gum disease, regardless of how well they cazre for their teeth.

Tooth malposition and misaligned bite:-when teeth do notcome together evenly, too much force can be placed on the gums and bone, allowing gums to recede.

Dipping tobacco:-tobacco affects mucus membrane lining in the mouth and will cause receding gums over time

Hormonal changes:-fluctuations in female hormone levels during a women lifetime such as in puberty,pregnancy menopause can make gums more sensitive and more vulnerable to gum recession

Grinding and clenching:-grinding and clenching your teeth will cause too muchy force on the teeth, causing gums to recede.

Habits like digging a fingernail or pencil into the gum:-commonly associated with children and persons with psychiatric disorders

Jewelery of the lips and tongue can rub the gums and irritate them to the point that gum tissue is worn away

Abnormal frenal attachment

Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

Adult orthodontic movement of the teeth.

Intentional Gingival retraction:-if the adult tooth may not grow out of the gum, and toremedy this, a procedure called an exposure is involves the gum tissue being cut open to allow the adult toothy to grow is the less common cause of gem recession.

Receding Gums Symptoms:-

  • Tooth mobility
  • Dentin hypersensitivity
  • Tooth appears longer than normal
  • Roots exposed and visible
  • Notch at the gum line
  • Change in the tooths colour due to color difference between enamel and cementum
  • If the gum recession caused by gingivitis then symptoms are red, swollen gums, bleeds while brushing and flossing, bad breath

Receding Gums Classification:-

Class1:-marginal tissue recession not extending to the mucogingival loss of interdental bone or soft tissue

Class2:-marginal tissue recession extends to or beyond the mucogingival loss of interdental bone or soft tissue.

Class3:-marginal tissue recession extends to or beyond the mucogingival junction.loss of interdental bone or soft tissue is apical to the cementoenamel junction, but coronal to the apical extent of marginal tissue recession.

Class4:-marginal tissue recession extends beyond the mucogingival junction.loss of interdental bone extends to a level apical to the extent of the marginal tissue recession.

Receding Gums Treatment:-

Correction of malocclusion

Eliminate the habits such as clenching and grinding

Mild gum recession:

Scaling and root planing


If your gum recession can not be treated with deep cleaning because of excessive bone loss and deep pockets, gum surgery may be required to repair the damage caused by gum recession.

Surgical procedures:-

  • Pocket depth reduction
  • Regeneration
  • Soft tissue graft

Pocket depth reduction:-

In this procedure, the dentist folds back the affected gum tissue , removes the bacteria from the pockets, and then snugly secures the gum tissue in place over the tooth root, thus eliminating the pockets or reducing their size.


As in pocket depth reduction your dentist will fold back the gum tissue and remove bacteria. a regenerative material such as a membrane, graft tissue, tissue stimulating protein will then be applied to encourage your body to naturally regenerate bone and tissue in that area. after the regenerative material is put in the place, the gum tissue is secured over the root of the tooth.

Soft tissue graft:-

Several types of gum tissue grafts are used

  1. Connective tissue graft-it is commonly used. Subepithelial connective tissue is collected from the palate and then stiched to the gum tissue surrounding the exposed root.
  2. Free gingival graft:-tissue is taken directly from the roof of the mouth
  3. Pedicle graft:-if enough gum tissue is present surrounding the affected area then graft is taken from near the tooth.

Receding Gums Prevention:-

  • Maintain good oral hygiene
  • Use soft bristled tooth brush
  • Follow the proper brushing technique
  • Avoid over brushing
  • Use dental floss in a correct way
  • Quit smoking
  • Take well balanced healthy diet
  • Eliminate the habits like nails or pencil digging
  • Correction of abnormal frenal attachment

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right toothbrush

How to Select a Toothbrush | Types of Toothbrushes

Tooth brush plays major role in the maintenance of oral hygiene. We all know about tooth brush but most of the people don’t know about the selection of tooth brush. Selection of the right tooth brush is most important because our day starts with think some time before choosing your many types of tooth brushes are available in the market to select a proper tooth brush.

Thousands of microbes grow on tooth brush bristles and handles. Most are harmless but others can cause cold sores, periodontal infections. You should replace your brush when it begins to show wear or for every 3 months.

Types of Tooth brushes :2 types

  • Manual
  • Powered

Types of Manual Toothbrushes

  • Conventional
  • Interdental brush
  • Sulca brush
  • End tuft brush
  • Chewable tooth brush
  • Ecological tooth brushes

right toothbrushConventional Tooth Brush:
Most commonly used is comfortable and easy to use it effectively removes the plaque, debris. This toothbrush is divided into 3 parts.

  • Toothbrush head
  • Bristles
  • Handle

Toothbrush head:
Different shapes of toothbrush heads are available.

  1. Conventional-all conventional toothbrush head designs are effective in cleaning every tooth surface.
  2. Diamond shape-the tips of these toothbrush heads are narrower than conventional. This is convenient for posterior teeth.

The size of the brush head should be considered according to the size of oral cavity.

Age Diameter of the head (approximately)
O-2 years 15 mm
2-6 years 19mm
6-12years 22mm
>12years 25mm

Bristle Pattern:
The arrangement of bristles is known as bristle pattern. The bristle pattern also plays an important role in the removal of debris, plaque. Different types of bristle patterns are

  • Block pattern:-bristles are of the same length and arranged in a order like a block.
  • Wavy/v-shape pattern:-bristles are arranged in a in wavy/v-shape gives the bristles a better contact with the areas around the adjacent tooth surfaces.
  • Multilevel trim pattern:-this pattern is used to reach the difficult areas to clean
  • Criss cross pattern:-this pattern lift up plaque effectively.
  • Polishing cup bristles:-removes surface stains effectively

If the handle of the brush is good then the brushing is comfortable. Different types of handle designs are

Straight handle:-all conventional toothbrushes have straight handles that are easier to control

Contra angle handle:-access difficult to clean areas

Flexible handle:-decrease the gum injury caused by excessive brushing force

Slip prevention grip handle:-prevent the toothbrush from slipping away during brushing
Interdental Brush:
It is a small brush, typically disposable, either supplied with a reusable angled plastic handle or an integral handle, used for cleaning between teeth and between the wire of dental braces and teeth. These brushes are ranked from 1-7 and color coded as per iso 16409.
Sulca Brush:
It is used specifically for cleaning along the gum line adjacent to the teeth. The bristles are arranged in a pointed arrow pattern to allow closer adaptation to the is ideal brush to reach the difficult areas such between crowns, bridges, crowded teeth.
End Tuft Brush:
Small round brush head comprises 7 tufts of tightly packed soft nylon bristles, trimmed so the bristles in the center can reach deeper into small is used to clean

  • The area behind the wisdom teeth.
  • Orthodontic braces
  • Crowded teeth
  • Tooth surfaces that are next to missing teeth
  • Areas around implants, bridges, dentures and other appliances.

Chewable Toothbrush:
It is a miniature plastic moulded toothbrush which can be placed inside the is not commonly is useful for is available in different should be disposed after use. Other types of toothbrush include those that contain a small breakable plastic ball of toothpaste on the bristles, which can be used without water.
Ecological toothbrushes:
Generally toothbrushes are made of reduce environmental impact some manufactures have switched to using biodegradable materials and replaceable heads.

Powered Toothbrush:

Also called as mechanical or automated brush or electronic toothbrush

An electronic toothbrush that makes rapid, automatic bristle motions, either back and forth oscillations or rotation oscillations made by motor. These are useful for those who have limited manual dexterity, psychological patients.

Electronic toothbrush can be classified into 2 categories based on the type of action

  1. Vibrating toothbrush:-brushing technique is similar to that manual brush
  2. Rotating-oscillating brushes:-cleaning technique is simply move the brush slowly from tooth to tooth.

Based on the speed of their movement

  1. Power toothbrushes
  2. Sonic toothbrushes:-audible frequency range is20HZ-20,000HZ
  3. Ultrasonic brushes:-audible frequency range>20,000HZ

Ultrasonic toothbrush:-emit vibrations that are very high in frequency. These vibrations break up bacterial chains that form dental plaque and remove their attachments to the tooth surface upto 5mm below the gum line. More effective than manual brushes.

Based on the power supply

  1. Battery-batteries are stered in the bottom of the brush and sealed against water damage. Once the battery life time is over then we need to change the battery. Less costly than electrical rechargeable toothbrushes.
  2. Rechargeable electric toothbrush:-electric recharge is necessary. Different charging methods are available such as toothbrush chargers, induction method. Various brushing modes are available for sensitive teeth, whitening, gum massaging. Pressure sensor indicator is present to warn you if your brushing is too hard.

How to Clean and Store a Toothbrush:

  • Thoroughly rinse your toothbrush with tap water after brushing to remove any remaining toothpaste and debris
  • Don’t share toothbrush
  • Bacteria can also be killed by heat. Boil the water and place the brush in hot water for 3-5 minutes.
  • wash your hands before handling your brush
  • wash your toothbrush before and after every use
  • Replace your toothbrush for every 3 months. The electronic toothbrush head should be changed for every 3 to 6 months at minimum or as soon as the brush head has visibly deteriorated.
  • When you are sick disinfect the toothbrush by letting it soak in an antibacterial solution for 10 minutes after brushing each time
  • Place the toothbrush in upright position
  • Keep the brushes separately to prevent cross contamination
  • Do not cover them or store in a closed container
  • Allow the brush to air dry until used again
  • Check brushes often for wear
  • Children toothbrushes often need to be replaced more frequently than adults

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dental fluorosis

Dental Fluorosis Causes | Treatments | Prevention Tips

dental fluorosisDental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel caused by excessive exposure to high concentrations of fluoride.

Usually Dental Fluorosis affects permanent teeth and occasionally the primary teeth may involved. Fluorosis is prone to occur in children who are excessively exposed to fluoride between 20 and 30 months of age. The critical period of exposure is between 1 to 4 years old, Kids are no longer at risk after 8 years.
Dental Fluorosis Causes:

  • Increased fluoride content in the drinking water
  • Using high fluoride containing dentifrices and mouth washes.
  • Inappropriate use of fluoride supplements.
  • Processed food made with fluoridated water.

Teeth are composed of hydroxyapatite and carbonated hydroxyapatite.fluoride reacts with these components and form fluorapatite. Dental fluorosis reflects an increasing porosity of the surface and subsurface enamel, causing the enamel to appear opaque.

The severity of dental fluorosis depends on age of child, bone growth, nutrition and amount of fluoride exposure.

Dental Fluorosis Classification:

Dental fluorosis classified into 6 types depends on severity. These are classified based on teeth appearance as below

  1. Normal-smooth: Glossy,pale creamy white,translucent surface
  2. Questionable- A few white spots
  3. Very mild- Small opaque,paper white areas covering less than 25% of tooth surface
  4. Mild- Opaque white areas covering less than 50% of tooth surface
  5. Moderate- All tooth surfaces affected,marked wear on biting surfaces,brown stains may be present.
  6. Severe- All tooth surfaces affected,discrete confluent pitting,brown stains present

Dental Fluorosis Prevention

  • Keep all fluoride containing products such as tooth paste,mouth rinses,and supplements out of the reach of children
  • Check the fluoride concentration in the drinking water
  • Avoid over intake of fluoride supplements
  • Only place a pea sized amount of tooth paste on your childs tooth brush.teach ur child to spit out after brushing instead of swallowing it.
  • Use appropriate dose levels and timing ofc fluoride exposure for prevention and control of dental caries and dental fluorosis.

Dental Fluorosis Treatment:
Treatment for Superficial Staining

  • Tooth bleaching
  • Microabrasion

Treatment for more unaesthetic conditions like brown stains on the anterior teeth

  • Composite Restorations
  • Porcelain Veneers(artificial crown)

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Why to Brush Twice a Day And How to?

brush twiceSo many people knows the answer that it is necessary, but only few follows the good habit. It takes only 2 minutes, even though we neglect this simple daily routine. It is very effective in maintaining the good oral hygiene.

We all know that prevention is better than make it as a will give healthy smile. Brushing daily twice reduces the decay formation, bad breath, bleeding from gums.

Select the Right Tooth Brush
Brush your teeth twice a day with soft bristled brush. The size and shape of brush should fit your mouth allowing to reach all areas easily. Replace your tooth brush every 3 or 4 months or sooner, if the bristles are frayed.

How much Time for Brushing!
We should brush for atleast 2 minutes. Most people fall short of the time. We should divide your mouth into 4 sections and spend 30 seconds on each. Increased brushing time will result in sore gums. Be gentle, it doesn’t take lot of force to remove plaque.

Brushing teeth is only a part of a complete oral care routine. We should also make sure to clean between teeth daily with floss or an interdental cleaner. This helps to remove plaque and food particles from between the teeth and under the gum line. Tooth brush cannot reach these places.

Taking care of your teeth and gums is not just about preventing decay or bad breath. Mouth is a gate way into your body it may effect overall health. Gum diseases and other health problems may be linked, so brushing and flossing are more important than ever.

Taking care of our teeth and brushing them regularly is way better than experiencing the treatment sitting on the dentist’s chair. Make it as a habit and always enjoy the healthy smiles.