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Importance of Dietary fiber in human body

Importance of dietary fiber in human body

The complex carbohydrates that are not digested by the human enzymes are collectively referred to as dietary fiber. These include cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, gums and mucilage. It may, however, be noted that some of the fibers are digestible by the enzymes of intestinal bacteria. Nutrionists attach a lot of importance to the role of fiber in human health. Dietary fiber is involved in several functions.

There are a number of health benefits for fiber. The most promising benefit that is receiving more and more attention is fiber’s role in immune health. We know that cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity have underlying inflammatory processes. Dietary fiber may play a role to modulate the immune system and therefore produce a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and obesity.

What are the beneficial effects of Fiber?

  • Prevents constipation:- fiber helps to maintain the normal motility of gastrointestinal tract and prevents constipation
  • Eliminates bacterial toxins:– fiber absorbs large quantities of water and also the toxic compounds produced by intestinal bacteria that lead to increased fecal mass and its easier expulsion
  • Decreases GIT cancers:– the lower incidence of cancers of gastrointestinal tract in vegetarians compared to non-vegeterians is attributed to dietary fiber
  • Improves glucose tolerance:– fiber improves glucose tolerance by the body. This is mainly done by a diminished rate of glucose absorption from the intestine
  • Reduces plasma cholesterol level:– fiber decreases the absorption of dietary cholesterol from the intestine. Further, fiber binds with the bile salts and reduces their enterohepatic circulation. This causes increased degradation of cholesterol to bile salts and its disposal from the body.
  • Satiety value:– dietary fiber is significantly adds to the weight of the food stuff ingested and gives a sensation of stomach fullness

What are the Sources of dietary fiber?


  1. Fruits:– Berries are an excellent source of fiber. One cup of blackberries has 8 grams of fiber, or about one-third of a woman’s daily needs. A cup of blueberries or cranberries will provide 5 grams of fiber. A 1-cup serving of strawberries contains 4 grams of fiber. Choose berries as a snack, add them to salads or have them for dessert with a drizzle of honey and a sprinkle of chopped nuts.

A large orange, medium pear or medium apple each have 4 grams of fiber and make a convenient snack. A large kiwi or one-half of a large mango each offer 3 grams of fiber. Eat three small plums or five prunes for an extra 3 grams of fiber. One-half of a medium avocado has 4 grams of fiber and can be used as a sandwich spread or mixed with salsa for a simple dip.

  1. Bran:- One simple way to increase fiber intake is to power up on bran. Bran from many grains is very rich in dietary fiber. Oat bran is high in soluble fiber, which has been shown to lower blood cholesterol levels. Wheat, corn, and rice bran are high in insoluble fiber, which helps prevent constipation. Bran can be sprinkled into your favorite foods, from hot cereal and pancakes to muffins and cookies. Many popular high-fiber cereals and bars are also packed with bran
  2. Beans:- Beans really are the magical fruit. They are one of the most naturally rich sources of fiber, as well as protein, lysine, vitamins, and minerals, in the plant kingdom. It’s no wonder so many indigenous diets include a bean or two in the mix. Some people experience intestinal gas and discomfort associated with bean intake, so they may be better off slowly introducing beans into their diet. Encourage a variety of beans as an animal protein replacement in stews, side dishes, salads, soups, casseroles, and dips.
  3. Leafy vegetables:- Deep green, leafy vegetables are notoriously rich in beta-carotene, vitamins, and minerals, but their fiber content isn’t too shabby either. There are more than 1,000 species of plants with edible leaves, many with similar nutritional attributes, including high-fiber content. While many leafy greens are fabulous tossed in salads, sauting them in olive oil, garlic, lemon, and herbs brings out a rich flavor. The leafy vegetables high in fiber are Turnip greens, Mustard greens, Collard greens, Spinach, Beet greens
  4. Potatoes and sweet potatoes:- potatoes come in red, white, gold and purple hues, but all are full of potassium, vitamin C, folacin and fiber. A single baked potato will also provide you with over 3 grams of fiber, but remember the fiber in potatoes is mostly in their skin. If you want the cholesterol-lowering, colon cancer preventing, and bowel supportive effects of fiber, be sure to eat the potato’s flavorful skin as well as its creamy center.

Soluble fiber, found inside plant cells, is one of the two main types of fiber. This type of fiber absorbs water and forms a gel as it moves through your digestive tract, slowing the passage of food and helping you feel full for longer. It may help lower your cholesterol and your blood glucose levels, as well as your risk for heart disease. One serving of sweet potato contains 1.8 grams of soluble fiber. Insoluble fiber, found in the cell walls of plants, is the other main type of fiber. Insoluble fiber bulks up your stool, helping it move through the digestive tract and limiting your risk for constipation, diverticulosis and hemorrhoids. One serving of sweet potato contains 2.2 grams of insoluble fiber.

  1. Nuts:- Almonds, pecans, and walnuts have more fiber than other nuts. Go nuts to pack a fiber punch. One ounce of nuts and seeds can provide a hearty contribution to the day’s fiber recommendation, along with a bonus of healthy fats, protein, and phytochemicals. Sprinkling a handful of nuts or seeds over breakfast cereals, yogurt, salads, and desserts is a tasty way to do fiber.


POTASSIUM Functions, Sources and Diseases associated with Potassium

Potassium is the principal intracellular cat-ion. It is equally important in the extracellular fluid for specific functions. It is one of the main blood minerals called “electrolytes” (the others are sodium and chloride), which means it carries a tiny electrical charge (potential). The blood serum contains about 4-5 mg. (per 100 ml.) of the total potassium; the red blood cells contain 420 mg., which is why a red-blood-cell level is a better indication of an individual’s potassium status than the commonly used serum level.

The natural diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is rich in potassium and low in sodium, helping to maintain normal blood pressure and sometimes lowering elevated blood pressure. Potassium is very important in cellular biochemical reactions and energy metabolism; it participates in the synthesis of protein from amino acids in the cell. Potassium also functions in carbohydrate metabolism; it is active in glycogen and glucose metabolism, converting glucose to glycogen that can be stored in the liver for future energy. Potassium is important for normal growth and for building muscle.

What are the Functions of Potassium in body?

  1. Potassium maintains intracellular osmotic pressure
  2. It is required for the regulation of acid-base balance and water balance I n the cells
  3. The enzyme pyruvate kinase is dependent on potassium for optimal activity
  4. Potassium is required for the transmission of nerve impulse
  5. Adequate intracellular concentration K is necessary for proper biosynthesis of proteins by ribosomes
  6. Extracellular potassium influences cardiac muscle activity

What is the daily recommended allowance for Potassium?

Recommended dietary allowance guidelines vary depending on age. Infants from 0 to 6 months old should receive 400 milligrams daily, and those from 7 to 12 months old need 700 milligrams. The RDA for children from 1 to 3 years old is 3,000 milligrams each day, those from 4 to 8 years old warrant 3,800 milligrams and those from 9 to 13 years old need 4,500 milligrams. Children older than 13 and adults should get 4,700 milligrams per day, except for lactating women, who require 5,100 milligrams

What are the food sources of Potassium?

potassium image

Potassium is found in a wide range of foods. Many fruits and vegetables are high in potassium and low in sodium and, as discussed, help prevent hypertension. Most of the potassium is lost when processing or canning foods, while less is lost from frozen fruits or vegetables.

  • Fruits- banana, orange, pineapple
  • Potato, sweet potato, beans
  • Chicken, liver
  • Tender coconut water is a rich source of potassium
  • Dark leafy greens
  • Yogurt
  • Dried apricots
  • Milk
  • Salmon
  • Pistachios
  • Raisins

What are the deficiency symptoms of Potassium?

Potassium is needed to maintain good health. Although a balanced diet usually supplies all the potassium a person needs, potassium supplements may be needed by patients who do not have enough potassium in their regular diet or have lost too much potassium because of illness or treatment with certain medicines.

Hypokalemia:-decrease in the concentration of serum potassium is observed due to over activity of adrenal cortex, prolonged cortisone therapy, intravenous administration of K ion free fluids, treatment of diabetic coma with insulin, prolonged diarrhea and vomiting.

The symptom of hypokalemia include

  • Irritability
  • Muscular weakness
  • Tachycardia is a faster than normal heart rate at rest
  • Cardiomegaly
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Changes in the ECG are observed
  • Passing large amounts of urine or feeling very thirsty most of the time
  • fainting due to low blood pressure
  • Abnormal psychological behavior: depression, psychosis, delirium, confusion or hallucinations.

Hyperkalemia:-increase in the concentration of serum potassium is observed in renal failure, adrenocortical insufficiency, diabetic coma, severe dehydration, intravenous administration of fluids with excessive potassium salts

The manifestations of hyperkalemia include

  • Depression of central nervous system
  • Mental confusion
  • Numbness
  • Bradycardia with reduced heart sounds and finally cardiac arrest




Calcium Functions, sources and deficiency symptoms

Calcium is the most abundant among the minerals in the body. The total content of calcium in an adult man is about 1 to 1.5 kg. As much as 99% of it is present in the bones and teeth. A small fraction of the calcium, found outside the skeletal tissue, performs a wide variety of function. Most of the blood Ca is present in the plasma since the blood cells contain very little of it. The normal concentration of plasma or serum Ca is 9-11 mg/dl. The hormones calcitriol, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin are the major factors that regulate the plasma calcium within a narrow range

What are the functions of Calcium in the body?

  1. Development of bones and teeth:- calcium along with phosphate, is required for the formation of hydroxyapatite and physical strength of skeletal tissue. Bones which are in a dynamic state serve as reservoir of Ca. Osteoblasts are responsible for bone formation while osteoclasts result in demineralization.
  2. Muscle contraction:– calcium interacts with troponin C to trigger muscle contraction. Calcium also activates ATPase, increases the interaction between actin and myosin
  3. Blood coagulation:– several reactions in the cascade of blood clotting process are dependent on calcium
  4. Nerve transmission:– calcium is necessary for the transmission of nerve impulse
  5. Membrane integrity and permeability:– calcium influences the membrane structure and transport of water and several ions across it.
  6. Activation of enzymes:– calcium is needed for the direct activation of enzymes such as lipase, ATPase and succinate dehydrogenase
  7. Calcium as intracellular messenger:– certain hormones exert their action through the mediation of calcium
  8. Release of hormones:– the release of certain hormones insulin, PTH, calcitonin from the endocrine glands is facilitated by calcium

What is the daily Recommended Dietary Allowance of calcium?


Age Male Female Pregnant Lactating
0–6 months* 200 mg 200 mg
7–12 months* 260 mg 260 mg
1–3 years 700 mg 700 mg
4–8 years 1,000 mg 1,000 mg
9–13 years 1,300 mg 1,300 mg
14–18 years 1,300 mg 1,300 mg 1,300 mg 1,300 mg
19–50 years 1,000 mg 1,000 mg 1,000 mg 1,000 mg
51–70 years 1,000 mg 1,200 mg
71+ years 1,200 mg 1,200 mg

What are the food sources of calcium?


Calcium rich foods are

  • Cheese, Milk, yogurt
  • Green leafy vegetables such as spinach, kale, turnips, and collard greens
  • Fortified cereals
  • Fortified orange juice
  • Soy beans
  • Fortified soy milk
  • Fish, egg yolk


the absorption of calcium mostly occurs in the duodenum by an energy dependent active process. It is influenced by several factors

Factors promoting Ca absorption

  1. Vitamin D induces the synthesis of calcium binding protein in the intestinal epithelial cells and promotes Ca absorption.
  2. Parathyroid hormone enhances Ca absorption through the increased synthesis of calcitriol
  3. Acidity is more favourable for Ca absorption
  4. Lactose promotes calcium uptake by intestinal cellos
  5. The amino acids lysine and arginine facilitate Ca absorption

Factors inhibiting Ca absorption:-

  • High content of dietary phosphate results in the formation of insoluble calcium phosphate and prevents calcium uptake
  • The free fatty acids react with Ca to form insoluble calcium soaps. This is particularly observed when the fat absorption is impaired
  • Alkaline condition is unfavourable for Ca absorption
  • High content of dietary fiber interferes with Ca absorption
  • Phytates and oxalates interfere with Ca absorption

What are the diseases associated with calcium?

Hypocalcemia:- is a more serious and life threatening condition. It is characterized by a fall in the serum Ca to below 7 mg/dl, causing tetany. The symptoms of tetany include neuromuscular irritability, spasms and convulsions. Hypothyroidism is associated with a decrease in serum Ca and an increase in serum phosphate, besides the reduced urinary excretion of both Ca and phosphrous

Hypercalcemia:- the serum cxalcium level is increased in hypercalcemia. It is associated with hyperparathyroidism caused by increased activity of parathyroid glands. Decrease in serum phosphate is noticed in this condition.

Rickets:- rickets is a disorder of defective calcification of bones. This may be due to a low levels of vitamin D in the body due to a dietary deficiency of Ca and P or both. The concentration of serum Ca and P may be low or normal.

Osteoporosis:- it is characterized by demineralization of bone resulting in the progressive loss of bone mass. The elderly people of both sexes are at risk for osteoporosis. However, it is most predominantloy occurs in the postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis results in frequent bone fractures which are a major cause of disability among the elderly. So higher dietary intake of Ca is recommended for elderly people.

What are the risks of taking calcium?

Side effects:- At normal doses, calcium supplements may cause bloating, gas, and constipation. Very high doses of calcium can cause kidney stones. Research has found an increased risk of heart attacks and strokes in some people taking calcium supplements in addition to a diet high in calcium, though the true accuracy of these findings is being actively debated by experts.

Interactions:-If you take any prescription or over-the-counter medicines regularly, ask your doctor if it’s safe to use calcium supplements. Calcium can interact with drugs for heart disease, diabetes, epilepsy, and other conditions. Excessive doses of vitamin D can result in dangerously high levels of calcium. High doses of calcium can also interfere with the absorption of other minerals, like iron and zinc. In general, take calcium one to two hours apart from other supplements or medications. When taken at the same time, calcium can bind those products and pass them unabsorbed from the body.

Risks:- People with kidney disease, heart problems, sarcoidosis, or bone tumors should not take calcium supplements unless their doctors suggest it.

Overdose:- Excessive levels of calcium in the blood can cause nausea, dry mouth, abdominal pain, irregular heartbeat, confusion, and even death.


Iron Functions, Sources and Deficiency symptoms

The total content of iron in an adult body is 3-5g. About 7o% of this occurs in the red blood cells as a constituent of hemoglobin. At least 5% of body iron is present in myoglobin of muscle. Heme is the most predominant iron containing substance. It is constituent of several proteins/enzymes- hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, xanthine oxidase, catalase, tryptophan pyrrolase, peroxidase. Certain other proteins contain non-heme iron- transferrin, ferritin and hemosiderin. Iron is an essential element for almost all living organisms as it participates in a wide variety of metabolic processes, including oxygen transport, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, and electron transport.

Why is iron Important to the human body?

  1. Iron mainly exerts its functions through the compounds in which it is present. Hemoglobin and Myoglobin are required for the transport of oxygen and carbon di oxide.
  2. Cytochromes and certain non-heme proteins are necessary for electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
  3. Iron is associated with effective immune-competence of the body

Iron absorption and metabolism:-

Iron is mainly absorbed in the stomach and duodenum. In normal people, about 10% of dietary iron is usually absorbed. Iron is mostly found in the foods in ferric form, bound to proteins or organic acids. Vitamin c is necessary to convert ferric iron to ferrous form. Iron in the ferrous form is soluble and readily absorbed. Iron is stored in liver, spleen and bone marrow in the form of ferritin. In the mucosal cells, ferritin is the temporary storage form of iron.

Iron metabolism is unique as it operates in a closed system. It is very efficiently utilized and reutilized by the body. Further, iron losses from the body are minimal which may occur through bile, sweat, hair loss etc. Iron is not excreted into urine. Thus, iron differs from the vitamins or other organic and inorganic substances which are either inactivated or excreted during the course of metabolic function. Iron entry into the body is controlled at the absorption level, depending upon body needs. Thus the periodical blood loss in menstruating women increases its requirements. Increased iron demands are alsoobserved in pregnancy, lactation and in growing children.

What are the food sources of Iron?

Dietary iron has two main forms: heme and nonheme. Plants and iron-fortified foods contain nonheme iron only, whereas meat, seafood, and poultry contain both heme and nonheme iron. High iron foods include clams, liver, sunflower seeds, nuts, beef, lamb, beans, whole grains, dark leafy greens (spinach), dark chocolate, and tofu.


irony iron


Rich sources:- organ meats such as liver, heart, kidney

Good sources:- leafy vegetables such as broccoli, Spinach, kale, collards, asparagus and dandelion greens. Pulses, cereals, fish, apples, dried fruits and molasses

Poor sources:- milk, wheat, polished rice


What is the recommended dietary allowance of Iron?

Age Male Female Pregnancy Lactation
Birth to 6 months 0.27 mg* 0.27 mg*
7–12 months 11 mg 11 mg
1–3 years 7 mg 7 mg
4–8 years 10 mg 10 mg
9–13 years 8 mg 8 mg
14–18 years 11 mg 15 mg 27 mg 10 mg
19–50 years 8 mg 18 mg 27 mg 9 mg
51+ years 8 mg 8 mg

Factors affecting Iron absorption

  1. Acidity, ascorbic acid and cysteine promot6e iron absorption
  2. In iron deficiency anemia, iron absorption is increased to 2-10 times that of normal
  3. Small peptides and amino acids favour iron uptake
  4. Phytate found in cereals and oxalate found in leafy vegetables interfere with iron absorption
  5. A diet with high phosphate content decreases iron absorption while low phosphate promotes
  6. Tea and eggs decrease iron absorption to a limited extent
  7. Iron absorption is diminished in copper deficiency
  8. Impaired absorption of iron is observed in malabsorption syndromes such as steatorrhea
  9. Administration of alkali decreases iron absorption
  10. In patients with partial or total surgical removal of stomach and/or intestine, iron absorption is severely impaired

What are the symptoms of iron deficiency?

  • Iron deficiency anemia:- this is the most prevalent nutritional disorder worldover, including the well developed countries. Several factors may contribute to iron deficiency anemia. These include inadequate intake or defective absorption of iron, chronic blood loss, repeated pregnancies and hookworm infections. Iron deficiency anemia mostly occurs in growing children, adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women. It is characterized by microcytic hypochromic anemia with reduced blood hemoglobin levels. The other manifestations include apathy (dull and inactive), sluggish metabolic activities, retarded growth and loss of appetite

Initially, iron deficiency anemia can be so mild that it goes unnoticed. But as the body becomes more deficient in iron and anemia worsens, the signs and symptoms intensify.

Iron deficiency anemia symptoms may include:

  • Extreme fatigue
  • Pale skin
  • Weakness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Frequent infections
  • Headache
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Inflammation or soreness of your tongue
  • Brittle nails
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Unusual cravings for non-nutritive substances, such as ice, dirt or starch
  • Poor appetite, especially in infants and children with iron deficiency anemia
  • An uncomfortable tingling or crawling feeling in your legs

 What is the effect of excessive iron in the body?

The excessive iron can cause hemosiderosis.

Hemosiderosis:- this is a less common disorder and is due to excessive iron in the body. It is commonly observed in subjects receiving repeated blood transfusions over the years. Iron is a one way compound, once it enters the body, it cannot escape. Excessive iron is deposited as ferritin and hemosiderin. Hemosiderosis is sometimes accompanied by hemochromatosis. Bronzed pigmentation of the skin, cirrhosis of liver and pancreatic fibrosis are the manifestations of the hemosiderosis. Hemochromatosis is a rare disease in which iron is directly deposited in the tissues such as liver, spleen, pancreas and skin. Hemochromatosis causes a condition known as bronze diabetes

What is the treatment for the iron deficiency anemia?

Initially, iron deficiency anemia can be so mild that it goes unnoticed. But as the body becomes more deficient in iron and anemia worsens, the signs and symptoms intensify. If you or your child develops signs and symptoms that suggest iron deficiency anemia, see your doctor. Iron deficiency anemia isn’t something to self-diagnose or treat. So see your doctor for a diagnosis rather than taking iron supplements on your own. Overloading the body with iron can be dangerous because excess iron accumulation can damage your liver and cause other complications. Oral ferrous iron salts are the most economical and effective medication for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Of the various iron salts available, ferrous sulfate is the one most commonly used.

mushroom health benefits

Top 5 Health Benefits of Mushrooms

Mushrooms, though classified as vegetables in the food world, are not technically plants. They belong to the fungi kingdom and although they are not vegetables, mushrooms provide several important nutrients. One cup of chopped or sliced raw white mushrooms contains 15 calories, 0 grams of fat, 2.2 gm of proteins, 2.3g of carbohydrates including 0.7 g fiber, 1.4 g of sugar. Large varieties of mushrooms are available with the same amount of nutrients.

Mushrooms are naturally low in sodium, fat, cholesterol, and calories and have often been referred to as “functional foods.” In addition to providing basic nutrition, they help prevent chronic disease due to the presence of antioxidants and beneficial dietary fibers such as chitin and beta-glucans. Mushrooms also contain choline; an important nutrient found that helps with sleep, muscle movement, learning and memory. Choline assists in maintaining the structure of cellular membranes, aids in the transmission of nerve impulses, supports proper fat absorption and reduces chronic inflammation.

Health Benefits of Mushrooms

  1. Mushrooms are rich in B vitamins:- mushrooms are rich in Riboflavin, folate, thiamine, pantothenic acid and niacin. Thiamine, as a cocarboxylate is involved in energy releasing reactions. The coenzyme of riboflavin and niacin take part in a variety of oxidation-reduction reactions connected with energy generation.
  2. Provide several minerals:- mushrooms also provide several minerals that may be difficult to o0btain in the diet, such as selenium, Potassium, Copper, iron and phosphorus
  3. Improves insulin resistance:-beta-glucans are type of fiber that is found in the cell walls of many types of mushrooms. Recently, beta-glucans have been the subject of extensive studies that have examined their role in improving insulin resistance and blood cholesterol levels, lowering the risk of obesity and providing an immunity boost.
  4. Increase your vitamin D:- mushrooms are the only vegetable source of this critical vitamin. Like humans, mushrooms can produce vitamin D when they exposed to sunlight. The active form of vitamin D is calcitriol which functions like a steroid hormone and regulates plasma levels of calcium and phosphate.
  5. Boost your immune system:- mushrooms may promote immune function by increasing the production of antiviral and other proteins that are released by cells while they are trying to protect and repair the body’s tissues.

mushroom health benefitsWhat precautions should be taken while purchasing mushrooms?

It is best to consume mushrooms that have been cultivated under appropriate conditions. Wild mushrooms that are toxic to humans can cause severe illness and sometimes even death. The beta glucans in the mushrooms may be risk for those with auto immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and multiple sclerosis. Mushrooms are known to concentrate heavy metals, as well as air and water pollutants, so healthy growing condition is a critical factor.

Best Way to Store the Mushrooms?

Mushrooms become slimy and develop brown spots within just a few days. Paper bags, plain plastic bags, perforated plastic bags and containers are used to store the mushrooms. It is ideal to use mushrooms in first couple days. Mushrooms can be stored on a paper towel, either in their original container or in a glass bowel with perforated plastic wrap over the top of the container and place them immediately in the refrigerator. Do not leave them out of the fridge for an extended period of time.

  • When buying loose mushrooms, select the closed and fresh mushrooms. If you want to store these mushrooms, put them in a smallest size container that will hold all the mushrooms and then wrap the container with plastic wrap. Poke a few small holes in the plastic wrap to let air escape.
  • Wild mushrooms keep better in a paper bag in the refrigerator’s crisper drawer. Paper allows for better air flow while the crisper drawer keeps the air slightly humid and prevents the mushrooms from drying out. It is better to consume mushrooms within one week after purchase.
  • Actually mushrooms continue to grow after picking and refrigeration slows down their metabolism. For commercial mushrooms that are plastic wrapped in the grocery store, keep them directly in the refrigerator with their original packaging. Unopened packs can be stored up to 1 week

How to Clean Mushrooms?

Don’t soak mushrooms in water for cleaning purpose because mushrooms can absorb water. Usually black dirt will appear on the mushrooms. Rinse mushrooms under cold water thoroughly to remove black dirt. Most dirt should wash off; any spots that are toughened or bruised should be cut from edible flesh. Peel off and discard the outer layer of mushrooms. Cleaning them with water and then wiping them is more efficient than soaking in water.

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mumps symptoms

Mumps Symptoms and How to Prevent Mumps

Mumps is also known as epidemic parotitis. It is an acute systemic communicable disease caused by a single stranded RNA virus, paramyxovirus. It is characterized by painful enlargement of one or both parotid glands. The disease is widespread in distribution and is endemic in urban communities. Its peak incidence is in winter and spring seasons.

Transmission of Mumps:-

Mumps is highly contagious and spreads rapidly among people living in close quarters. Humans are the only reservoir of the infection. The virus is transmitted through by respiratory droplets, direct contact and through fomites infected with saliva. When an infected person coughs or sneezes the dropolets aerosolize and can enter the eyes, nose or mouth of another person. It can also be spread by sharing food and drinks.

People are infectious to each other from a few days before the start of symptoms to four days after. After an infection a person is typically immune for life long. Reinfection is possible but it tends to be mild.

Mumps Symptoms

The average incubation period is 18 days. Mumps is preceded by a set of prodromal symptoms. One third of the patients are asymptomatic

  • Low grade fever, headache
  • Malaise
  • Anorexia, sore throat
  • Pain or tenderness at angles of jaws
  • Difficulty in chewing or talking followed by enlargement of parotid glands within 24 hours. Two-third cases have bilateral enlargement, which resolves over a period of 1 week
  • There may be pain in the ears
  • Epididymo-orchitis characterized by pain and swelling of testis and epididymis, occurs within 7-10 days after onset of parotid swelling in 20-30% post pubertal males. Unilateral enlargement of testis is far common than bilateral. Testicular atrophy and sterility are unusual.
  • Oophritis characterized by lower abdominal pain is less common but may occur in post pubertal females. CNS involve ment in the form of aseptic meningitis occurs in 10% cases, which is self- limiting. Occasional nerve deafness may occur. Encephalitis or encephalomyelitis are rare.

How to Prevent Mumps?

A live attenuated vaccine is available and may be given to children above one year of age along with rubella and measles vaccines. It confers lifelong immunity. MMRV vaccine also available which gives protection against mu8mps, measles, rubella and chicken pox

mumps symptomsWhat is the Treatment for Mumps?

There is no available cure for mumps and the treatment is supportive. Analgesics are used to relive pain. Application of hot or cold compresses to the parotids may also help to relieve pain.

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Hypothyroidism Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

The normal thyroid gland consists of two lobes joined by an isthmus in the middle. Thyroid gland is located in the front of your neck. The thyroid gland synthesizes two hormones, T3 and T4, from iodine taken in the diet. Production of T3 and T4 in the thyroid is controlled by a mechanism called feedback mechanism. T3 is the metabolic active hormone which acts as a stimulus. Thyroid hormones control the general metabolism by regulating the rate of oxidation and production of energy. They maintain the basal metabolic rate of the body. They promote growth of body tissues and development of mental functions during infancy and childhood.

A clinical condition caused by low levels of circulating thyroid hormones is called hypothyroidism. It is called primary when the cause of it lies in the thyroid itself. It becomes secondary when hypothyroidism occurs due to the disease of anterior pituitary or hypothalamus. Goitrous hypothyroidism is associated with enlargement of thyroid. Primary hypothyroidism is more common than secondary.

Hypothyroidism Causes

  1. Idiopathic or spontaneous or atrophic hypothyroidism:- it is an autoimmune disorder mostly occurring in females. There is destruction of thyroid follicles by autoimmune process leading to atrophy of thyroid. Patient of Graves disease treated with Antithyroid drugs develop spontaneous hypothyroidism at a variable period of 10-20 years.
  2. Goitrous
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis:-it is a common cause of goiter with hypothyroidism. It is an autoimmune disorder. It has slow insidious onset. It affects mostly females in the age group of 30-50 years. The thyroid is diffusely enlarged, occupies major portion of neck. It may be associated with other autoimmune disorders.
  • Deficiency of Iodine:- This occurs in persons living in hilly areas such as Himalayas, where goiter is seen in more than 10% of population or may occur during puberty
  • Drug induced:- Lithium carbonate is an antipsychotic drug used in the treatment of manic depressive psychosis. It produces asymptomatic goiter
  • Dyshormogenesis
  1. postablative:- it follows post-ablative surgery or radioactive treatment for thyrotoxicosis. It does not require treatment as patients are asymptomatic and disease is self-limiting
  2. maternally transmitted
  3. over treatment by antithyroid

Hypothyroidism Symptoms

Symptoms depend on the age at which deficiency manifests duration and severity of the disease. Infantile hypothyroidism is seen in the infants (age less than 1 year). The symptoms are mental retardation, delayed milestones of development, pot belly, protruding tongue, flat nose, dry skin and sparse hairs. This condition is called cretinism. X-ray of bone shows delayed bone age. This should be promptly treated; otherwise, mental deficiency will persist.

Juvenile hypothyroidism manifests at adolescence and is characterized by short stature, retarded growth, and poor performance at school, delayed puberty and sexual maturation. Other features of adult hypothyroidism are present to variable degree.

The clinical picture of adult hypothyroidism is nonspecific and insidious in onset. The symptoms and signs are due to slow metabolic rate and due to deposition of mucopolysaccharides into various body tissues such as larynx causing hoarseness of voice, deafness, tongue producing slurred speech, skin with non-pitting edema, puffiness of face, hands, feet and eyelids. It is called as myxedema because of characteristic infiltration of skin by myxomatous tissue. There may be symptoms of compression of long nerves.

Symptoms and signs of adult hypothyroidism

  1. General features:-tiredness, weight gain, cold intolerance, hoarseness of voice and lethargy are common.
  2. Cardiovascular:-slow pulse rate, hypertension and xanthelasma are common. Precipitation of angina and cardiac failure are less common
  3. Neuromuscular:-aches and pains, delayed relaxation of ankle jerks and muscle stiffness are common. Carpel tunnel syndrome, deafness, psychosis, depression, myotonia are less common
  4. Hematological:- anemia may be present
  5. Dermatological:-dry thick skin, sparse hair, non -pitting edema are common
  6. Reproductive:-menorrhagia, infertility and impotence is less common
  7. Gastrointestinal:- constipation

What is the Treatment for Hypothyroidism?

Treatment of hypothyroidism is lifelong replacement of thyroid hormones by L-thyroxine; the dose is prescribed as per patient’s need so as to maintain normal metabolic activity. Patients feel better within 2-3 weeks after the start of replacement therapy. First of all, patients feel slightly active, there is decrease in weight. Puffiness of the face disappears. There is noticeable change In voice and bowel evacuation. The changes of skin, hair and effusion take longer time, that is, 3-6 months to disappear.

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Hyperthyroidism Causes Symptoms and Clinical Features

The normal thyroid gland consists of two lobes joined by an isthmus in the middle. Thyroid gland is located in the front of your neck. The thyroid gland synthesizes two hormones, T3 and T4, from iodine taken in the diet. Production of T3 and T4 in the thyroid is controlled by a mechanism called feedback mechanism. T3 is the metabolic active hormone which acts as a stimulus. Thyroid hormones control the general metabolism by regulating the rate of oxidation and production of energy. They maintain the basal metabolic rate of the body. They promote growth of body tissues and development of mental functions during infancy and childhood. They sensitize the tissues to the action of endogenous catecholamine. Therefore excess of these hormones lead to symptoms and signs of sympathetic stimulation characteristically seen in hyperthyroidism

What is Hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism is a clinical syndrome that results from exposure of the body tissues to excess of circulating free thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism also called as thyrotoxicosis. Thyrotoxicosis literally means toxicity due to excess of thyroid hormones. All the tissues that contain thyroid receptors are affected. Hyperthyroidism affects females more than males and is usually associated with thyroid enlargement.

What Are The Causes Of Hyperthyroidism?

The causes of hyperthyroidism are

  1. Graves disease:-

It is the most common thyroid disorder producing hyperthyroidism. It is characterized by the symptoms that are diffuse goiter, exophthalmos and pre-tibial myxedema. It can occur at any age but is common between 30-50 years old age group. It is an autoimmune disorder. Normally in an autoimmune disorder, antibodies destroy the thyroid tissue but this is an exception where the thyroid IgG antibodies stimulate the thyroid to produce more hormones. Exophthalmos is due to collection of retro-orbital fluid and proliferation of fibroblasts which lead to rise in pressure in retro-orbital space, which pushes the eyeballs forward.

  1. Toxic nodular goiter:- multinodular and solitary nodule
  2. Excess iodine:- high amount of iodine can cause hyperthyroidism. Iodine is used by the body to produce hormones.
  3. Thyroid medication:- taking too much thyroid hormone medication can cause hyperthyroidism. Don’t increase the dose of thyroid medication without consulting your doctor. Don’t take more doses than prescribed.,
  4. Less common causes are thyroiditis, thyroid carcinoma

What are the Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism?

Moderate to severe hyperthyroidism produces characteristic features, the presentation of which varies from patient to patient. The clinical symptoms and signs are due to

  1. Accelerated basal metabolic rate
  2. Stimulation of sympathetic system due to hypersensitisation
  3. Compressed due to enlarged thyroid

There are different modes of presentation at different age groups. A child may present with behavioural abnormalities or premature growth spurt or deterioration of mental functions. An old man may present with irregular heartbeats. Sometimes symptoms and signs may not be complained of but can be observed at clinical examination

Goiter:- diffuse or nodular. Diffuse goiter indicates Graves disease while nodularity indicates toxic nodular goitre

  • Gastrointestinal:- weight loss in spite of good appetite, diarrhea, vomitings
  • Cardiovascular:- high resting pulse rate, irregular heart beat
  • Neuromuscular:- nervousness, irritability, restlessness, psychosis, tremors of hands, muscular weakness, exaggerated tendon reflexes
  • Dermatological:- increased sweating, clubbing of fingers, redness of palms, hair loss
  • Reproductive:-menstrual irregularity, abortions, infertility, impotence
  • Ophthalmological:- lid lag or lid retraction, staring look, excessive watering of eyes, double vision
  • Other symptoms are heat intolerance, excessive thirst, outburst of anger, fatigability

throidismHyperthyroidism Treatment

  1. Antithyroid drugs:- the Antithyroid drugs block the iodination of tyrosine, hence, reduce the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Carbimazole is commonly used drug
  2. Radioactive ablation of thyroid:– hyperactive thyroid gland is destroyed by radioactive iodine. Indications for this treatment are patients more than 40 years of age, recurrence following surgery.
  3. Subtotal thyroidectomy:– indications for subtotal thyroidectomy are
  • Large goiter
  • Frequent relapses on drug treatment
  • Age less than 40 years with thyrotoxicosis hypersensitive to drug therapy
  • Poor drug compliance.

Hyperthyroidism Treatment in Pregnancy:-

The hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is always due to grave’s disease. Antithyroid drugs cross the placental barrier; hence, there is risk of fetal hypothyroidism. As a general rule, dosage of Antithyroid therapy should be the lowest effect does necessary to control hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Betablockers should not be used as an adjuvant therapy during pregnancy because of their effect on fetus. Radioactive iodine is contraindicated during pregnancy and subtotal thyroidectomy is not6 preferred over drug treatment if patient is responsive to therapy.

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Scarlet Fever Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Scarlet fever is a highly contagious systemic infection occurring predominantly in children, caused by beta-hemolytic streptococci, St. Pyogenes which produces a pyogenic exotoxin. It is similar in many respects to acute tonsillitis and pharyngitis caused by streptococci. Though it occurs in all populations of the world, it is less frequent today. Scarlet fever is most common in children 5 to 15 years of age. Although Scarlet fever was once considered a serious childhood illness but antibiotic treatments have made it less threatening. Still, if left untreated, scarlet fever can result in more serious conditions that affect the heart, kidneys and other parts of the body

Scarlet Fever Symptoms

Scarlet fever is common in children. The symptoms are

  • After the entry of the microorganisms into the body, which is believed to occur usually through the pharynx, there is an incubation period of three to five days, after which the patient exhibits severe pharyngitis and tonsillitis, headache, chills, fever and vomiting
  • Enlargement and tenderness of the regional cervical lymph nodes
  • The characteristic feature is, diffuse, bright scarlet skin rash appears on the second or third day of the illness. This rash which is particularly prominent in the areas of the skin folds, is a result of the toxic injury to the vascular endothelium which produces dilation of the small blood vessels and consequent hyperemia.
  • The rash typically begins first on the upper trunk, spreading to involve extremities but sparing the palms and soles.
  • Small papules of normal color erupt through these rashes giving a characteristic ‘sand paper’ feel to the skin.
  • The rash subsides after six or seven days followed by the desquamation of palms and soles. The color of the rash varies from scarlet to dusky red

Scarlet_fever_CausesScarlet Fever Oral Manifestations

The chief oral manifestations of scarlet fever have been referred to as stomatitis scarlatina. The mucosa particularly of the palate, may appear congested and may have petechiae scattered on the soft palate.

  • The tongue exhibits a white coating, and the fungiform papillae are edematous and hyperemic, projecting above the surface as small red knobs. This phenomenon has been described clinically as a ‘straw berry tongue’ or ‘white strawberry tongue
  • The coating of the tongue soon lost; beginning at the tip and lateral margins, and this organ becomes red, glistening and smooth except for the swollen, hyperemic papillae. The tongue in this phase has been termed the ‘raspberry tongue’ or ‘red strawberry tongue’
  • In severe cases, ulceration of the buccal mucosa and palate may appear due to secondary infection

Scarlet Fever Treatment?

The administration of antibiotics will help to treat and also help in controlling possible complications. Local application of topical ointment also can be used to relieve discomfort

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Psoriasis Causes, Symptoms Treatment and Oral Manifestations

What is Psoriasis?

Psoriasis is a noncontagious skin disorder that most commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis and is characterized by patches on the scalp, trunk and limbs. The nails may be pitted and/or thickened. In rare instances it has been reported to manifest oral mucous membrane lesions. Psoriasis can be seen in people of any age, from babies to senior, most commonly patients are first diagnosed in their early adult years. Psoriasis is uncommon in children, and seldom does a primary attack occur after the age of 45 years. Psoriasis is slightly more common in women

What are the Causes of Psoriasis?

The causes of psoriasis are not fully understood. It is not purely a skin disorder and can have a negative impact on many organ systems.

  • Psoriasis is generally considered a genetic disease, though to be triggered or influenced by environmental factors
  • Life style:-worsening of the disease includes chronic infection, stress and changes in season and climate. Other factors include hot water, scratching psoriasis skin lesions, skin dryness, excessive alcohol, smoking and obesity
  • HIV:-people with advanced HIV often exhibit psoriasis. Psoriasis tend to be more severe in people infected with HIV
  • Medication:-drug induced psoriasis may occur with beta blockers, lithium, antimicrobial medication, ca channel blockers, captopril, interleukins, lipid lowering drugs
  • Withdrawal of corticosteroids can aggravate psoriasis due to the rebound effect of corticosteroids
  • Psoriasis has been associated with an increased risk of certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases and other immune mediated disorders such as crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

What are the Symptoms of Psoriasis?

  • Although psoriasis plaques can be limited to only a few small areas, the condition can involve wide spread areas of skin anywhere on the body.
  • Psoriasis of the skin is characterized by the occurrence of small, sharply delineated, dry papules, each covered by a delicate silvery scale which has been described as resembling a thin layer of mica.
  • If the deep scales are removed, one or more tiny bleeding poins are disclosed, a characteristic features termed Auspitz’s sign. After removal of the scale the surface of the skin is red and dusky in appearance
  • The skin lesions which are painful and seldom pruritic, may be few in number or extensive in distribution. Large plaques of irregular outline formed by the union of smaller lesions. They are roughly symmetrical and are most freqjuently grouped on the elbows and knees, the scalp, back and chest, face and abdomen.
  • New lesions slowly arise over a period of weeks, months or even years. The disease may remain static for a long time, progress slowly to involve more and more skin area, or exhibit acute generalized exaserbations.
  • The disease is more severe in the winter and less severe in the summer as a result of increased exposure to ultraviolet light; patients who move to a warm sunny climate usually undergo improvement in their condition.
  • Arthritis:-Arthritis is a complication in about 12 percent of persons with psoriasis.
  • Nail psoriasis:-

psoriasis-skin-diseaseWhat are the oral Symptoms of Psoriasis?

Psoriatic involvement of oral mucosa is extremely rare. Psoriatic lesions have been reported on the lips, buccal mucosa, palate, gingiva and floor of the mouth. Clinically they are described as gray or yellowish-white plaque; as salivary white, scaly lesions with an erythematous base; as multiple popular eruptions which may be ulcerated with a scaly surface.

What is the Treatment for Psoriasis?

Since psoriasis mainly affects the skin, topical treatments are very useful because they are relatively safe, quite effective and can be applied directly to the disease. Treatments for more general or advanced psoriasis include UV-A light, retinoid, cyclosporine, methotrexate particularly for arthritis. UV light exposure can treat large areas of skin with few side effects. Laser therapy is quite effective for small plaques of psoriasis.

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folic-acid rich foods

Folic acid Foods – Benefits & Deficiency Symptoms

Folate and folic acid are forms of a water soluble B vitamin. Folate occurs naturally in food and folic acid is the synthetic form of this vitamin. Folic acid also referred to as vitamin B9 or vitamin M. Folic acid or folacin word came from the Latin word folium means leaf. Folic acid is abundantly found in green leafy vegetables. It is important for one carbon metabolism and is required for the synthesis of certain amino acids, purines and the pyrimidine-thymine. The active form of folic acid is tetrahydrofolate.

What are the Functions of folic acid?

  • Folic acid is needed for the proper development of the human body. It involved in producing the genetic material called DNA and in numerous other bodily functions
  • Tetrahydrofolate, the coenzyme of folic acid is actively involved in the one carbon metabolism
  • Folic acid helps in the production of the healthy red blood cells
  • Folic acid helps in rapid cell division and cell growth
  • Enhances brain health
  • Folic acid is necessary for fertility in both men and women. It contributes in spermatogenesis

Why folic acid is important in pregnancy?

folic-acid rich foodsFolic acid helps protect against a number of congenital malformations, including neural tube defects. Neural tube defects are severe abnormalities of the central nervous system that develop in embryos during the first few weeks of pregnancy resulting in malformations of the spine, skull and brain. Most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and ancephaly. Folic acid reduce the risk of congenital heart defects, cleft lip, limb defects and urinary tract anomalies. Folic acid deficiency increase the risk of preterm delivery, infant low birth weight and fetal growth retardation.

Why doctors prescribe folic acid supplements during pregnancy?

Folic acid reduces the pregnancy complications such as placental abruption and pre-eclamplasia. Folic acid supplements may also protect the fetus against disease when the mother is battling a disease or taking medication or smoking during pregnancy.

What is the recommended dietary allowance for folic acid?

  • Birth to 6 months                                       65 mcg
  • 7-12 months                                               80 mcg
  • 1-3 years                                                     150 mcg
  • 4-8 years                                                     200 mcg
  • 9-13 years                                                   300 mcg
  • 14-18 years                                                 400 mcg
  • 19+ years                                                    400 mcg
  • Pregnant women                                         600 mcg
  • Lactating women                                         500 mcg

What are the Food sources of Folic acid?

Dark green vegetables are good sources of folic acid. Folic acid content decreases due to over cooking.

  • Spinach, turnip greens, mustard greens
  • Asparagus
  • Beans, peas, lentils
  • Liver, kidney
  • Citrus fruits: papaya, oranges, strawberries, raspberries
  • Avocado
  • Sunflower seeds, peanuts, flaxseeds, almonds
  • Cauliflower, beets, corn, celery, carrots
  • Cabbage, potato
  • Egg yolk
  • Milk is a rather poor source of folic acid
  • Whole wheat bread usually fortified

What is the Symptoms of Folic acid Deficiency?

Folic acid deficiency is probably the most common vitamin deficiency, observed primarily in the pregnant women, in both developed and developing countries.

  • The macrocytic anemia associated with megaloblastic changes in bone marrow is a characteristic feature of folate deficiency. Symptoms of anemia are pale skin, lethargy, persistent fatigue, tender tongue, irritability, diarrhea
  • Fatigue, tiredness
  • Grey hair
  • Mouth sores
  • Tongue swelling
  • Growth problems
  • Forgetfulness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Being irritable

What are the Causes of folic acid Deficiency?

  • Taking diet low in folic acid
  • Over cooking of foods
  • Crohn’s disease and celiac disease can affect the absorption of the folic acid
  • Certain medications can cause folic acid deficiency such as phenytoin, sulfasalazine
  • Excessive alcohol intake. Alcohol interfere with folic acid absorption and also increases folate excretion through the urine

What is the treatment for folic acid deficiency?

To treat folic acid deficiency anemia, your doctor will usually prescribe daily folic acid tablets to build up your folate levels. The doctor may also give you dietary advice so you can increase your folate intake. Folic acid is frequently combined with other B vitamins in supplements. Alcohol intake should be decreased and completely eliminated for pregnant women. People who take medications known to cause folic acid deficiency should take supplements as well on doctors advice.

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Migraine Causes

Migraine Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Most of the people experience the migraine headache. Migraine is a term applied to certain headaches with a vascular quality. Migraine often begins in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood. Migraine is characterized by varying degree of recurrent vascular headache, visual disturbances, sleep disruption and depression.

What are the Causes of Migraine?

Migraine cause isn’t understood, genetics and environmental factors appear to p[lay a role. Migraine may be caused by changes in the brainstem and its interactions with the trigeminal nerve, a major pain pathway. Imbalance in brain chemicals may also cause migraine.

What are the Trigger Factors for Migraine?

Some factors may cause migraine attack. These factors are called as trigger factors.

  • Hormonal changes in women
  • Foods such as aged cheese, salty foods and processed food
  • Drinks such as alcohol especially wine
  • Stress
  • Changes in wake sleep pattern
  • Food additives such as sweeteners, preservatives
  • Medication such as oral contraceptives
  • Environment changes
  • Physical factors such as intense physical exertion

What are the Risk factors for Migraine?

  • Family history:-up to 90% of people with migraines have a family history of migraine attacks. If one or both your parents have migraine, then you have a good chance of having migraines too
  • Age:-it can begin at any age. Migraine usually begins during the second decade of life and is especially common in professional persons
  • Sex:-migraine headaches are reported to affect women more than men. Women are 3 times more likely to have migraines
  • Hormonal changes:-hormonal changes are seen in menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause. Migraine may begin at any stage of hormonal change. Generally migraine improve after menopause

What are the Symptoms of Migraine?

Migraine may progress through 4 stages

  1. Prodromal stage
  2. Aura
  3. Headache
  4. Postdromal stage

Symptoms of Prodromal stage:

A prodromal stage or preheadache stage is noted by some patients, consisting of lethargy and dejection several hours before the headache.

  • Constipation
  • Depression
  • Confusion
  • Unilateral Paraesthesia
  • Food cravings
  • Hyperactivity
  • Irritability
  • Neck stiffness
  • Uncontrollable yawning


Most people experience migraine headaches without aura. Usually begins gradually, buids up over several minutes and then commonly lasts for 20 to 60 minutes

  • Usually visual disturbances such as flashes of light
  • Sensory, movement and speech disturbances


When untreated, a migraine lasts from 4 to 72 hours, but the frequency with which headaches occur varies from person to person. At the time of headache the pati9ent may appear extremely ill. The face is usually pale, sallow, and sweaty.

  • Pain on one side or both sides of your head
  • Pain that has a pulsating, throbbing quality
  • Sensitivity to light, sounds and sometimes smells
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Impaired memory and concentration
  • Blurred vision
  • Prolonged and painful contraction of head and neck muscles is found in some patients
  • Lightheadedness sometimes followed by fainting


It occurs after a migraine attack. Some people report feeling, mildly euphoric

Migraine CausesWhat is the Treatment for Migraine?

Doctor consultation in the early stage of migraine is necessary. The treatment of migraine includes a wide variety of drugs ranging from acetylsalicylic acid and codeine to ergotamine, and norepinephrine. The prognosis of disease is good, since the condition is not dangerous and may undergo complete and permanent remission

Natural Tips to reduce migraine headache

While there are a number of other drugs that treat and prevent migraines, there are also a number of natural options to ease the pain.

  • Turn off the lights:-migraines often increase sensitive to light and sound. Relax in dark, quiet room, sleep if you can
  • Massage painful areas:-apply gentle pressure to your scalp and temples
  • Drink a caffeinated beverage:- in small amounts caffeine alone can relieve migraine pain in the early stages
  • Don’t skip meals and establish regular sleep hours
  • Avoid foods that trigger migraines such as ages cheese, chocolates and alcohol
  • Feverfew:-the herb feverfew has been used for centuries as a folk remedy for migraine, arthritis, pain and fever in Europe. Feverfew contains compounds called parthenolides, which appear to help control expansion and contraction of blood vessels in the head
  • Butterbur:-butterbur is a shrub like plant that grows in northern Asia, Europe and parts of North America. Extracts made from the herb have been used to treat migraines, stomach cramps, cough, allergies and asthma
  • Magnesium:-Mg reduces the severity and frequency of migraine. People with migraine and cluster headaches are often deficient in magnesium. Mg supplements may also help to reduce headache
  • Riboflavin:-this B vitamin found naturally in foods like milk, meat, nuts and green veggies. Riboflavin was linked to prevent migraine
  • Flax seeds, salmon fish and fish oil supplements may also help to reduce migraine
  • Sniff peppermint:-certain smells can trigger the pain but peppermint in particular seems to have pain reducing effect. It may not work for everyone
  • Ginger:-ginger can ease migraine related nausea and it may decrease pain
  • Simple head rub and whole body massage can help to reduce the migraine
  • Meditation:-meditation practice can relieve stress. Stress relief can reduce the migraine attacks
  • Drink more water:-plenty of headaches are triggered by dehydration. Patients who will quickly drink a few glasses of water when they feel a migraine coming on, and actually stop it in its tracks
  • Acupuncture:-it is time consuming and expensive
  • Regular exercises:-regular exercise relaxes you, it releases endorphins.

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