How to control plaque in Children

How to control plaque in Children

How to control plaque in children?

Generally kids don’t have interest in tooth brushing. It is very difficult task for parents to make them brush. Proper brushing is necessary to avoid so many dental problems. Prevention is better than repair and replacement so brushing has more importance in oral hygiene methods. 

As soon as teeth erupt, you can start using toothpaste in the amount of a grain of rice. You can increase this to a pea-sized amount of fluoride toothpaste when your child is age 3. Brush gently all around your child’s baby teeth — front and back.

Baby teeth may be small, but they’re important. They act as placeholders for adult teeth. Without a healthy set of baby teeth, your child will have trouble chewing and speaking clearly. That’s why caring for baby teeth and keeping them decay-free is so important.

Two main dental disease, dental caries and periodontal disease frequently begin in childhood and often have long sequelae, therefore to parent these problems primary preventive dental care must begin equine life berthed onset of these diseases.

Finger tooth brushes are available in the market for brushing of baby teeth.

What is Dental Plaque ?

Dental plaque is the soft deposits adhering to the tooth surface or other hard tissues in the oral ca it’s. These deposits may also seen on the removable and fixed restoration.  Dental plaque is composed primarily of microorganisms. Various microorganisms are present in dental plaque such as bacterial species and non bacterial species like yeasts, Protozoa and viruses. 20%-30% of Plaque consists of organic and inorganic materials derived from saliva, gingival crevicular fluid, and bacterial products. Organic constituents in the plaque include polysaccharides, proteins, glycoproteins and lipid. The inorganic component of plaque is primarily calcium and phosphorus,with trace amounts of other minerals such as sodium, potassium and fluoride. 

Dental plaque induced Gingival Diseases

Formation of dental plaque:-

Dental plaque is white, grayishor yellow and may be readily visualised on teeth after1 to 2 days with no oral hygiene ensure. Plaque is typically observed in the gingival third of the tooth surface, where it accumulates without disruption. The process of plaque formation can be divided into three phases.

  1. The formation of the dental Pellicle
  2. Initial colonisation by bacteria
  3. Secondary colonisation and plaque maturation

How to control plaque?

Plaque control is the removal of plaque and the prevention of its accumulation on the teeth and the adjacent gingival surfaces. Plaque control is the key to prevention and successful treatment of periodontal disease. Plaque control is accomplished by professional plaque removal and by patient performed oral hygiene. Removal of microbial plaque leads to resolution of gingival inflammation in its early stages, and cessation of plaque control measures leads to again periodontal diseases. Some common agents that are used in plaque control are

  1. Mechanical plaque control
  • Tooth paste
  • Tooth brush
  • Dental floss
  • Oral irrigation 
  • Interdental cleaning aids
  1. Chemical plaque control
  • Mouth wash
  • Chlorhexidine

How to identify bacterial plaque deposits?

Disclosing solution is used to identify bacterial plaque. Disclosing solution is a preparation in liquid, tablet that contains a dye or other colouring agentused to identify bacterial plaque deposits for instruction, evaluation and research. Disclosing solution is used in the case of

  • To educate patient
  • To give instructions to patient about the plaque control 
  • Self assessment by the patient
  • Evaluation of effectiveness of plaque control measures 

ToothPaste:-

Toothpaste is a substance used with a toothbrush to remove bacterial plaque, material alba and debris from the gingiva and teeth.

Select the best ToothPaste for your Teeth 

HERE’S WHAT THE COLOUR MARK ON THE BOTTOM OF THE TOOTHPASTE TUBE STANDS FOR

You may have never noticed it before or if you have, you may not know that the colour mark on every toothpaste tube signifies a very important thing! Usually the mark on a tube can be any of these colours: red, blue, green and black. These colours signify if the toothpaste contains chemical or natural ingredients. Wondering what your toothpaste contains? This is what the following colours signify.

BLACK: This is the most dangerous colour. It clearly indicates a presence of chemicals in the toothpaste.

RED: This is slightly less dangerous than black as black coloured label means that the composition of toothpaste is a combination of natural ingredients and chemicals.

BLUE: Blue coloured mark indicates that the toothpaste contains natural ingredients combined with the presence of medication.

GREEN: This is the best of all as green coloured mark represents the presence of only natural ingredients.

Toothbrush:-

The mechanical cleaning of teeth can be traced back to ancient times. Both powered and manual tooth brushes are available in the market. Always select the tooth brush with soft bristles and don’t use the same tooth brush for long time. 

To choose a good toothbrush for your child, try the following suggestions

How to select a Toothbrush and types of Toothbrushes

When it comes to choosing the best toothbrush for your child, it’s important to opt for one that she will use properly and regularly. There are a variety of disposable and electric options available for kids. And they come in a variety of colours and often feature children’s favorite characters from classic stories and popular cartoons. Some varieties even play music to help your child know how long to brush.

  • Make sure the toothbrush you select has an ADA Seal of Approval
  • Pick a child-sized toothbrush with soft bristles.
  • If your children are old enough, have them help you pick out their toothbrushes. Getting your children involved in the process and excited about a new toothbrush may make tooth-brushing a more enjoyable task.

Powered toothbrushes are useful for

  • Individual lack of moto skill
  • Handicapped patient 
  • Patients who have orthodontic appliances 

Dental floss:-

Types of dental floss

There is no one “right” floss for everyone. In fact, there’s no reason why you can’t have several types of floss and flossing products on hand. A small container of nylon dental floss or dental tape is great for a purse, pocket or carry-on travel bag. A mint-flavoured floss can be a great choice to use when you’re traveling so you don’t have to carry a bottle of mouthwash. And when you’re at home, you can treat yourself to your electric flosser.

  • Unwaxed floss is thin nylon floss made of about 35 strands twisted together. It fits into tight spaces if your teeth are close together, but it can be prone to shredding or breaking.
  • Waxed floss is a standard nylon floss with a light wax coating. It is less likely to break, but the wax coating may make it harder to use in tight spots.
  • Dental tape is broader and flatter than standard floss and comes in waxed or unwaxed versions. People with more space between their teeth often find dental tape more comfortable to use than standard floss.
  • Polytetrafluorethylene floss (PTFE) is the same material used in high-tech Gore-Tex fabric. The material slides between the teeth easily and is less likely to shred compared to standard floss.
  • Super flosses are made from yarn-like material that has stiffer sections on each end that can be used to clean around braces or dental bridges.

Flossing for children

Not all children can floss effectively. The ability to use floss is a function of age and manual dexterity. The ability to manipulate floss and remove plaque is highly dependent on hand and eye coordination and age.

Oral irrigation:-

Irrigation is the targeted application of a pulsates or steady stream of water or other irritant for a cleansing and therapeutic purpose. Oral irrigation can be done by patient or the clinician. Oral irrigation cleans adherent bacteria and debris fromthe oral cavity more effectively than do toothbrush and mouth rinse.

Mouth wash:-

A mouthwash or rinse does not replace a regular oral hygiene routine of twice-daily tooth brushing and daily flossing. The main function of most mouthwashes is to freshen breath, although if you suffer from severe chronic bad breath (halitosis), talk to your dentist about other ways to address the causes of the problem and manage your bad breath condition.

Guidelines for home oral hygiene 

Prenatal counseling:-

The goal of prenatal dental couseling is primarily one of education. Even before the baby is born, parents should be counseled on how to provide an environment that will nurture good oral health habits that contribute to lifelong dental health for their child. Prenatal counseling can be quite effective because during this period are more open to health information for their child than during any other time.

Plaque control in infants 

It is generally recommended that parents begin cleaning the infants mouth by the time first tooth erupts. It is suggested that secure and consistent physical support with slow, careful movement is to be employed at all time. Most have suggested that the parent wrap a damp washcloth or a piece o gauze around the index finger and clean the teeth and gum pads once a day.

As more teeth erupt the parent can begin using as all soft toothbrush. At this age ToothPaste is not necessary and may interfere with visibility for the parent. Additionally, the infant will be unable the effectively expectorate, causing unwanted ToothPaste ingestion. Several methods of positioning the infants for daily oral hygiene procedures have been suggested. One effective method is to have the parent cuddle the infant in his or her arm with one of the child arms gently slipped around the parents back. In this ways the parent can stabilise the child with one hand and work with the other.

Plaque control in toddler

The parent should be totally responsible for oral hygiene of the toddler, as for the infant. Establishing a specific routine is generally most convenient for parents and encourages the young child to develop good dental habits. As more teeth begin to erupt, parents should approach brushing systematically by beginning in one area of the mouth and progressing up in an orderly fashion. This is best accomplished by the use of a dampened, soft bristled toothbrush. If adjacent, teeth are in contact, parents should also begin to floss these areas. Although parents still have the responsibility of performing a thorough, daily

Plaque removal for their toddlers, children at the age begin to demonstrate an interest in the procedure and a desire to take part. Parents should encourage this behaviour and allow the child to attempt brushing procedures. Parents, should, however, be advised that the child efforts will be inadequate in thoroughly removing plaque. Therefore, the parent must perform a through plaque removal for the child at least once a day. As for the infant, it is so important to the parents methods of positioning andstblizing the child so that the parents will have maximum visibility as well as control over the child’s movements. 

The position selected for home plaque removal procedures will depend on the cooperation of the child. Many of the techniques employed with the infants may also be applied to the toddler. One of the most effective positions is to have the parents face each other while the child is supine on the parents knees. In this position, one parent assumes the role of brushes while the other parent stabilises the child.

Plaque control in the early school stage

Because kids are beginning to develop the necessary skill, early school ages children should be encouraged to routinely attempt brushing and flossing. However the parent must continue to maintain the major responsibility by providing a thorough plaque removal for the child each evening before bed. Disclosing agents may be particularly useful in this age group when one is teaching brushing and flossing techniques. The key to the success of an oral hygiene program for the preadolescent child is to encourage parents to reinforce the instructions given in the dental hospital. After the child attempts plaque removal procedures, the parent can promote learning by staining the teeth with disclosing solution and showing where the improvement is needed. The child should also be praised for his or her efforts when plaque has been successfully removed. Children in this age group generally demonstrate the ability to spit and should use a fluoridated toothpaste each time they brush.

Plaque control in the preadolescent:-

During pre adolescence, the child will gradually assume more responsibility for his or her own hygiene. In this age group they can do effective brushing and flossing. The children in this age group require instruction on proper brushing and floss techniques.

Plaque control in the adolescent 

The adolescent has generally attained the strength needed to properly brush and floss without direct help from an adult. Although children in this age group probably have the ability to adequately perform thorough oral hygiene procedures, they may lack the motivation to do so on a routine basis.

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