Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel caused by excessive exposure to high concentrations of fluoride.
Usually Dental Fluorosis affects permanent teeth and occasionally the primary teeth may involved. Fluorosis is prone to occur in children who are excessively exposed to fluoride between 20 and 30 months of age. The critical period of exposure is between 1 to 4 years old, Kids are no longer at risk after 8 years.
Dental Fluorosis Causes:
- Increased fluoride content in the drinking water
- Using high fluoride containing dentifrices and mouth washes.
- Inappropriate use of fluoride supplements.
- Processed food made with fluoridated water.
Teeth are composed of hydroxyapatite and carbonated hydroxyapatite.fluoride reacts with these components and form fluorapatite. Dental fluorosis reflects an increasing porosity of the surface and subsurface enamel, causing the enamel to appear opaque.
The severity of dental fluorosis depends on age of child, bone growth, nutrition and amount of fluoride exposure.
Dental Fluorosis Classification:
Dental fluorosis classified into 6 types depends on severity. These are classified based on teeth appearance as below
- Normal-smooth: Glossy,pale creamy white,translucent surface
- Questionable- A few white spots
- Very mild- Small opaque,paper white areas covering less than 25% of tooth surface
- Mild- Opaque white areas covering less than 50% of tooth surface
- Moderate- All tooth surfaces affected,marked wear on biting surfaces,brown stains may be present.
- Severe- All tooth surfaces affected,discrete confluent pitting,brown stains present
Dental Fluorosis Prevention
- Keep all fluoride containing products such as tooth paste,mouth rinses,and supplements out of the reach of children
- Check the fluoride concentration in the drinking water
- Avoid over intake of fluoride supplements
- Only place a pea sized amount of tooth paste on your childs tooth brush.teach ur child to spit out after brushing instead of swallowing it.
- Use appropriate dose levels and timing ofc fluoride exposure for prevention and control of dental caries and dental fluorosis.
Dental Fluorosis Treatment:
Treatment for Superficial Staining
- Tooth bleaching
Treatment for more unaesthetic conditions like brown stains on the anterior teeth
- Composite Restorations
- Porcelain Veneers(artificial crown)