When preparing for a viva voice examination on permanent dentition, it’s important to be well-versed in various aspects of dental anatomy, oral health, and dental procedures. Here are some potential viva voice questions and their corresponding answers:
- What are the main types of teeth in the permanent dentition, and how many of each are there?
- There are four types of teeth in the permanent dentition: incisors (8), canines (4), premolars (8), and molars (12). In total, there are 32 permanent teeth in a typical adult.
- What is the function of incisors in the permanent dentition?
- Incisors are primarily used for cutting and chopping food. They have sharp edges that help in biting into and breaking down food particles.
- What is the function of canines in the permanent dentition?
- Canines are pointed teeth that are used for tearing and gripping food. They help in holding and tearing tough or fibrous foods.
- Describe the function of premolars in the permanent dentition.
- Premolars have flat surfaces with cusps, which make them suitable for grinding and crushing food. They are transitional teeth between the pointed canines and the multi-cusped molars.
- What is the role of molars in the permanent dentition?
- Molars are the largest and strongest teeth in the permanent dentition. They are responsible for grinding and crushing food into smaller particles, aiding in digestion.
- Explain the numbering system used for permanent teeth.
- The Universal Numbering System assigns a unique number to each tooth. In this system, the right upper third molar is designated as tooth #1, and the numbering proceeds across the upper arch to the left, then continues in a similar fashion in the lower arch but starting with the right lower third molar as tooth #17.
- What are the names and functions of the different surfaces of a tooth?
- The surfaces of a tooth are named as follows: occlusal (biting surface of posterior teeth), incisal (biting edge of anterior teeth), mesial (towards the midline of the dental arch), distal (away from the midline), buccal/labial (towards the cheeks or lips), and lingual (towards the tongue). Each surface plays a specific role in mastication and function.
- Can you explain the process of tooth eruption in the permanent dentition?
- Tooth eruption is the process by which teeth emerge through the gums and become functional. It usually begins with the lower central incisors and progresses towards the posterior teeth, with the upper teeth following a similar pattern. Eruption generally starts at around 6 years old and continues into the late teens.
- What is the difference between primary and permanent teeth?
- Primary teeth are also known as deciduous or baby teeth. They are the first set of teeth to erupt in a person’s mouth and are eventually replaced by the permanent teeth. Permanent teeth are the second set of teeth that typically last a lifetime.
- Discuss the most common dental conditions affecting the permanent dentition.
- Common dental conditions in the permanent dentition include dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease, malocclusion, tooth fractures, and dental abscesses. It’s important to maintain good oral hygiene and seek regular dental check-ups to prevent and manage these issues.
· What is the shape of the occlusal surface of the permanent maxillary first molar?
· Which is the largest cusp in permanent mandibular first molar?
· Number of roots in maxillary second molar?
Remember to study these topics in depth and be prepared to provide comprehensive answers during your viva voice examination.Dental Materials Viva Voice Questions for BDS
typically covers a wide range of topics related to dental anatomy, pathology, treatment planning, and clinical procedures. Here are some common viva voce questions and their answers in the field of permanent dentition:
- Can you explain the anatomy of a tooth?
- Answer: A tooth consists of three main parts: the crown (visible part), the neck (junction between the crown and root), and the root (embedded in the jawbone). The crown is covered by enamel, the hardest substance in the body. Beneath the enamel is dentin, and the pulp chamber contains nerves and blood vessels.
- What are the different types of teeth in permanent dentition?
- Answer: There are four types of teeth in permanent dentition: incisors (for cutting), canines (for tearing), premolars (for grinding and crushing), and molars (for grinding).
- What is dental caries, and how is it treated?
- Answer: Dental caries, commonly known as cavities, are areas of decay on a tooth’s surface. Treatment involves removing the decayed tissue and filling the cavity with materials like dental amalgam or composite resin.
- Explain the process of tooth extraction.
- Answer: Tooth extraction involves the removal of a tooth from its socket in the jawbone. It is performed for various reasons, such as severe decay or impaction. The dentist numbs the area, uses specialized instruments to loosen the tooth, and then extracts it. Post-extraction care is essential to promote healing.
- What are the functions of saliva in maintaining dental health?
- Answer: Saliva plays a crucial role in maintaining dental health by cleansing the mouth, neutralizing acids, remineralizing enamel, and aiding in digestion. It helps prevent tooth decay and gum disease.
- Discuss the importance of dental radiographs (X-rays) in diagnosis and treatment planning.
- Answer: Dental X-rays provide valuable information about the teeth and surrounding structures that may not be visible during a clinical examination. They help identify cavities, bone loss, impacted teeth, and other dental issues, facilitating accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.
- How does periodontal disease develop, and what are its stages?
- Answer: Periodontal disease, or gum disease, develops when plaque (a sticky film of bacteria) accumulates on the teeth and hardens into tartar. The stages of periodontal disease include gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and periodontitis (deeper gum and bone inflammation). Left untreated, it can lead to tooth loss.
- Explain the concept of dental occlusion.
- Answer: Dental occlusion refers to the way upper and lower teeth come together when the mouth is closed. Proper occlusion ensures even distribution of forces during chewing and speaking. Malocclusion refers to misalignment or irregularities in the bite.
- What are the common restorative materials used in dentistry?
- Answer: Common restorative materials include dental amalgam, composite resin, porcelain, and metals like gold and silver. The choice of material depends on factors like the location of the tooth, aesthetics, and patient preferences.
- Discuss the importance of oral hygiene and preventive measures in maintaining dental health.
- Answer: Oral hygiene, including regular brushing, flossing, and professional cleanings, is essential for preventing dental problems. Additionally, preventive measures like fluoride treatments and sealants can help protect teeth from decay.
These are just a few sample questions and answers for a viva voce examination in permanent dentition. The specific questions may vary depending on the institution and the level of the examination. It’s essential to have a comprehensive understanding of dental anatomy, pathology, and clinical procedures to succeed in such an examination.
What are cusps in the context of permanent teeth?
- Cusps are the pointed or raised areas on the occlusal surface (biting surface) of posterior teeth, including premolars and molars. They aid in chewing and grinding food.
- How many cusps do mandibular first premolars typically have, and what are they called?
Mandibular first premolars typically have two cusps: a buccal (or facial) cusp and a lingual cusp.
What is the purpose of the cusp of Carabelli on maxillary molars?
- The cusp of Carabelli is an additional cusp found on some maxillary molars, and it assists in the efficient grinding and crushing of food during mastication.
What is the significance of the number and arrangement of cusps on molars?
- The number and arrangement of cusps on molars play a crucial role in determining the masticatory function of these teeth, as they help break down food into smaller particles.
How does the number of roots vary in permanent teeth, and why does this variation occur?
- Permanent teeth can have varying numbers of roots. For example, mandibular incisors typically have one root, while molars often have multiple roots. This variation is due to differences in tooth development and function.
What is the function of tooth roots?
- Tooth roots anchor the tooth within the jawbone and provide stability and support for the tooth. They also house the pulp chamber and root canals, which contain nerves and blood vessels.
What is the dental pulp, and where is it located within the tooth?
- The dental pulp is the soft, innermost portion of the tooth that contains nerves and blood vessels. It extends from the crown to the tip of the roots within the pulp chamber and root canals.
- How can variations in root morphology impact dental procedures, such as root canal treatment?
- Variations in root morphology can make dental procedures, like root canal treatment, more complex. Dentists need to be aware of these variations to ensure effective treatment.
- What is the significance of the root apex in dental health?
- The root apex is the tip of the tooth root. It’s essential in maintaining dental health because it needs to be properly sealed after procedures like root canals to prevent infection.
- How can patients maintain the health of both cusps and roots in their permanent teeth?
- Patients can maintain the health of cusps and roots through good oral hygiene practices, regular dental check-ups, and a balanced diet low in sugary and acidic foods.
These questions and answers should provide a solid foundation for understanding cusps and roots in permanent teeth. Depending on the depth and focus of your viva examination, you may need to provide more detailed responses.
Cusps of Permanent Teeth:
- What are cusps in the context of permanent teeth?
- Cusps are the pointed or elevated portions on the occlusal (biting) surface of molars and premolars, which are used for grinding and tearing food.
- How many cusps do mandibular molars typically have, and can you name them?
- Mandibular molars typically have two cusps: the mesial and distal cusps. The mesial cusp is larger than the distal cusp.
- What is the significance of the cusp-fossa relationship in occlusion?
- The cusp-fossa relationship refers to how the cusps of upper teeth align with the fossae (depressions) of lower teeth during occlusion. Proper alignment ensures efficient chewing and minimizes wear.
- Describe the location and function of the buccal and lingual cusps in premolars.
- Buccal cusps are on the cheek side, and lingual cusps are on the tongue side. They help with grinding and crushing food during mastication.
- How do the cusps of molars differ from those of premolars?
- Molars have more cusps compared to premolars, which generally have two (buccal and lingual). Molars have additional cusps like mesiobuccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual, and distolingual cusps.
Roots of Permanent Teeth:
- What is the function of the roots of permanent teeth?
- The roots anchor teeth in the jawbone and provide stability and support for the crown.
- How many roots do most permanent molars have, and why is this significant?
- Most permanent molars have two or more roots. This is significant because the number of roots affects the stability of the tooth and its resistance to movement.
- Explain the term “furcation” in the context of multi-rooted teeth.
- Furcation refers to the area where the roots of a multi-rooted tooth divide. It is an important site for periodontal health and can be susceptible to disease if not properly maintained.
- What is the shape of the root canal in permanent teeth, and why is it important?
- The root canal in permanent teeth is typically tapered and narrow toward the apex (tip of the root). This shape is important for the proper functioning of the tooth’s nerve and blood supply.
- What are some factors that can lead to root resorption in permanent teeth?
- Root resorption can be caused by factors like trauma, orthodontic treatment, and dental infections. It involves the loss of tooth root structure.
- What are pits and fissures in permanent teeth?
- Answer: Pits and fissures are natural anatomical features found on the occlusal surfaces of molars and premolars. Pits are small, pinpoint depressions, while fissures are narrow grooves or valleys in the tooth enamel.
- Why are pits and fissures more susceptible to dental decay?
- Answer: Pits and fissures are prone to decay because they are difficult to clean effectively with regular brushing and flossing. Bacteria and food particles can easily get trapped in these deep grooves, leading to cavities.
- How do dental sealants work in preventing decay in pits and fissures?
- Answer: Dental sealants are thin, protective coatings applied to the pits and fissures. They create a smooth, sealed surface that prevents bacteria and food from accumulating in these areas, reducing the risk of decay.
- What is the ideal age for applying pit and fissure sealants, and why?
- Answer: The ideal age for applying pit and fissure sealants is typically during the eruption of permanent molars, which usually occurs around the ages of 6 and 12. This is because it’s important to seal these surfaces early to prevent decay before it starts.
- What materials are commonly used for dental sealants?
- Answer: Dental sealants are usually made of resin-based materials. Some common examples include bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) and other light-cured or resin-modified glass ionomer materials.
- Are there any contraindications for applying pit and fissure sealants?
- Answer: Yes, contraindications may include teeth with existing decay, teeth with inadequate enamel for bonding, and patients with known allergies to sealant materials.
- How long do pit and fissure sealants typically last, and what factors can affect their longevity?
- Answer: Pit and fissure sealants can last for several years, but their longevity depends on factors such as the quality of application, patient oral hygiene, and wear and tear from chewing forces.
- What are some alternative methods for preventing decay in pits and fissures, apart from sealants?
- Answer: Alternatives include fluoride treatments, maintaining good oral hygiene, and dietary modifications to reduce sugar consumption. However, sealants are a highly effective preventive measure.
- How can dental professionals educate patients and parents about the importance of pit and fissure sealants?
- Answer: Dental professionals can provide educational materials, demonstrate the application process, and emphasize the long-term cost-effectiveness of sealants compared to treating cavities.
- What are the challenges associated with applying pit and fissure sealants in a clinical setting?
- Answer: Challenges may include moisture control during application, ensuring proper isolation, and patient cooperation, especially with pediatric patients.
These questions and answers cover essential aspects of pits and fissures in permanent teeth and their preventive measures. Be sure to expand on these responses as needed during your viva examination.