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Viva Question and Answers in dental caries

Certainly! Here are some common viva questions and their answers related to dental caries:

  1. What is dental caries?

Dental caries, commonly known as tooth decay or cavities, is a multifactorial disease that involves the progressive destruction of tooth structure due to bacterial activity, leading to the formation of cavities or holes in the teeth.

  1. What are the primary causes of dental caries?

Dental caries primarily result from a combination of factors, including:

  • Dental plaque: A biofilm of bacteria that forms on tooth surfaces.
  • Dietary sugars: Especially sucrose, which bacteria metabolize to produce acid.
  • Bacterial activity: Acid-producing bacteria like Streptococcus mutans.
  • Poor oral hygiene: Inadequate brushing and flossing.
  • Saliva: Low saliva flow can contribute as it helps neutralize acids and remineralize teeth.
  1. How does dental caries develop?

Dental caries develops through a process involving demineralization and remineralization:

  • Demineralization: Acid produced by bacteria in plaque erodes the tooth’s enamel, leading to mineral loss.
  • Remineralization: Saliva and fluoride help restore lost minerals to the enamel.
  1. What are the stages of dental caries development?

Dental caries progresses through stages:

  • Initial stage: Demineralization occurs in the enamel without cavitation.
  • Moderate stage: Enamel demineralization deepens, possibly reaching dentin.
  • Advanced stage: Dentin is affected, and cavities may form.
  • Severe stage: The pulp may become involved, leading to pain and infection.
  1. How can dental caries be prevented?

Dental caries prevention involves several strategies:

  • Oral hygiene: Regular brushing and flossing to remove plaque.
  • Dietary modifications: Limiting sugary foods and drinks.
  • Fluoride: Using fluoridated toothpaste and receiving professional fluoride treatments.
  • Dental check-ups: Regular visits to the dentist for cleanings and early detection.
  • Sealants: Applying dental sealants to protect vulnerable areas.
  1. What are some treatment options for dental caries?

Treatment options depend on the severity of the caries:

  • Fluoride treatment: In the early stages to remineralize enamel.
  • Fillings: For cavities, typically using materials like amalgam or composite.
  • Crowns: For more extensive damage.
  • Root canal therapy: If the pulp is affected.
  • Extraction: In severe cases when restoration is not possible.
  1. How does fluoride help prevent dental caries?

Fluoride promotes remineralization and inhibits demineralization. It makes enamel more resistant to acid attacks and can even reverse early carious lesions.

  1. What are the consequences of untreated dental caries?

Untreated dental caries can lead to:

  • Pain and discomfort.
  • Infection and abscess formation.
  • Tooth loss.
  • Impaired chewing and speech.
  • Aesthetic issues.
  1. What is the role of saliva in preventing dental caries?

Saliva helps maintain oral health by buffering acids, providing minerals for remineralization, and washing away food particles and bacteria.

  1. Can dental caries be hereditary?

While genetics can play a role in susceptibility to caries, the primary factors are still oral hygiene, diet, and lifestyle choices.

These questions and answers should provide a good starting point for discussing dental caries in a viva or any other dental-related examination.

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Certainly! Here are some common viva questions and their answers related to the classification of dental caries:

  1. What are the major classifications of dental caries based on location?

Dental caries can be classified based on location into the following categories:

  • Pit and fissure caries: Occur on the occlusal (biting) surfaces of molars and premolars, characterized by deep grooves and fissures.
  • Smooth surface caries: Develop on the flat surfaces between teeth or on the smooth surfaces of teeth, often associated with poor oral hygiene.
  1. How are dental caries classified based on their severity?

Dental caries can be classified by severity using various systems, with one of the most common being:

  • Early (incipient) caries: Limited to the enamel and has not yet penetrated the dentin.
  • Moderate caries: Extends into the dentin but has not reached the pulp.
  • Advanced caries: Involves the pulp, leading to pain and infection.
  1. What is the classification of dental caries based on etiology?

Dental caries can be classified based on their etiology (causes) into:

  • Primary caries: Develop on previously healthy tooth surfaces.
  • Secondary caries (recurrent caries): Occur adjacent to existing restorations or fillings.
  • Smooth surface caries: Often related to poor oral hygiene and dietary factors.
  1. How are dental caries classified based on the affected tooth surfaces?

Dental caries can be classified based on the tooth surfaces they affect:

  • Buccal and labial caries: Affect the cheek and lip surfaces of teeth.
  • Lingual caries: Affect the tongue-facing surfaces.
  • Mesial and distal caries: Occur on the surfaces facing the midline (mesial) and those facing away (distal).
  1. What is the Nyvad system for classifying dental caries?

The Nyvad system is a classification method that categorizes dental caries based on activity and severity. It includes four stages:

  • Initial lesion: Non-cavitated caries.
  • White spot lesion: Early cavitation with no dentin involvement.
  • Cavitated lesion: Caries with cavitation but confined to enamel.
  • Dentin involvement: Caries affecting the dentin.
  1. How are dental caries classified based on their appearance?

Dental caries can also be classified by their appearance:

  • White spot lesions: Early demineralization seen as chalky white areas on the tooth surface.
  • Brown or dark lesions: Indicating more advanced caries with cavitation.
  • Black lesions: Usually seen in cavities with extensive breakdown.
  1. What is the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS)?

ICDAS is a comprehensive system for classifying dental caries that takes into account various stages of caries development and provides a detailed assessment of lesion activity and severity.

  1. Can dental caries be classified based on age groups or populations?

Yes, dental caries can be classified based on age groups or populations. For example, “Early Childhood Caries” (ECC) refers to caries that occur in young children, often due to prolonged exposure to sugary liquids in baby bottles.

  1. What is the significance of classifying dental caries?

Classifying dental caries is important for treatment planning, monitoring disease progression, and assessing the effectiveness of preventive measures and treatments.

These questions and answers should help you understand the classification of dental caries and be well-prepared for a viva examination on this topic.

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Certainly! Here are some common viva questions and their answers related to the causes of dental caries:

  1. What are the primary causes of dental caries?

Dental caries primarily result from a combination of factors, including:

  • Dental plaque: A biofilm of bacteria that forms on tooth surfaces.
  • Dietary sugars: Especially sucrose, which bacteria metabolize to produce acid.
  • Bacterial activity: Acid-producing bacteria like Streptococcus mutans.
  • Poor oral hygiene: Inadequate brushing and flossing.
  • Saliva: Low saliva flow can contribute, as it helps neutralize acids and remineralize teeth.
  1. How do dietary sugars contribute to dental caries?

Dietary sugars, particularly sucrose, provide a source of energy for acid-producing bacteria in dental plaque. These bacteria metabolize sugars and produce acids that erode tooth enamel, leading to caries development.

  1. Which bacteria are commonly associated with dental caries?

The main bacteria associated with dental caries are Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species. These bacteria produce acids as they ferment dietary sugars, leading to enamel demineralization.

  1. How does dental plaque play a role in caries formation?

Dental plaque is a biofilm that forms on teeth and contains a community of bacteria. When plaque accumulates, it creates an environment where acid-producing bacteria can thrive and attack tooth surfaces, leading to caries development.

  1. Why is saliva important in preventing dental caries?

Saliva plays a crucial role in preventing dental caries because it:

  • Buffers acids: Neutralizes acid produced by bacteria.
  • Remineralizes teeth: Supplies minerals like calcium and phosphate to repair damaged enamel.
  • Washes away debris: Helps remove food particles and bacteria from the mouth.
  1. How does poor oral hygiene contribute to dental caries?

Poor oral hygiene allows dental plaque to accumulate on teeth, providing a habitat for acid-producing bacteria. Inadequate brushing and flossing can lead to caries development over time.

  1. What are the effects of reduced saliva flow on dental caries risk?

Reduced saliva flow, known as xerostomia or dry mouth, increases the risk of dental caries because saliva is essential for neutralizing acids and remineralizing tooth enamel. Without sufficient saliva, the mouth becomes more acidic, promoting caries.

  1. Are there dietary factors other than sugar that can contribute to dental caries?

Yes, besides sugars, fermentable carbohydrates like starches from foods like bread and potatoes can also contribute to caries when bacteria break them down into acid.

  1. How do factors like genetics and systemic diseases relate to dental caries risk?

Genetics and systemic diseases can influence an individual’s susceptibility to dental caries. Some people may have genetic factors that make them more prone to caries, while certain medical conditions or medications can decrease saliva flow, increasing the risk.

  1. What is the role of fluoride in preventing dental caries?

Fluoride helps prevent dental caries by strengthening enamel and making it more resistant to acid attacks. It can also promote remineralization and inhibit the growth of acid-producing bacteria.

These questions and answers should provide a comprehensive understanding of the causes of dental caries, which can be helpful for viva examinations in dentistry or related fields.

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Certainly! Here are some common viva questions and their answers related to the symptoms of dental caries:

  1. What are the common symptoms of dental caries?

Dental caries can present with various symptoms, including:

  • Toothache or tooth sensitivity: Especially to hot, cold, sweet, or acidic foods and beverages.
  • Visible holes or pits: Cavities or white spots on the teeth.
  • Tooth discoloration: Darkening or staining of the affected tooth.
  • Pain when biting or chewing: Discomfort when pressure is applied to the affected area.
  1. Can dental caries be asymptomatic?

Yes, dental caries can be asymptomatic, especially in the early stages when the decay is limited to the enamel and has not yet reached the dentin or pulp. Regular dental check-ups are crucial for detecting asymptomatic caries.

  1. What is the typical progression of symptoms in dental caries?

The progression of symptoms in dental caries often follows this pattern:

  • Initially, there may be no symptoms.
  • As caries advances, tooth sensitivity to stimuli like temperature and sweets may develop.
  • Eventually, when caries reaches the dentin or pulp, severe toothache and possible infection can occur.
  1. Why do people with dental caries experience tooth sensitivity?

Tooth sensitivity in dental caries occurs because the protective enamel is compromised, allowing stimuli to reach the more sensitive dentin and nerve tissues inside the tooth.

  1. Can dental caries cause bad breath (halitosis)?

Yes, dental caries can lead to bad breath, also known as halitosis. Bacteria in cavities can produce foul-smelling byproducts, contributing to bad breath.

  1. What is the difference between reversible and irreversible symptoms of dental caries?
    • Reversible symptoms: These are early symptoms such as tooth sensitivity or white spot lesions that can be managed and potentially reversed with preventive measures like fluoride treatments and improved oral hygiene.
    • Irreversible symptoms: These occur when caries progresses to a point where the damage cannot be reversed, such as severe toothache, cavities, or infection. Irreversible symptoms typically require restorative dental procedures.
  2. How does the location of dental caries affect its symptoms?

The location of dental caries can influence the symptoms experienced. For example:

  • Pit and fissure caries: May be less symptomatic initially due to their location on the biting surfaces of molars, but they can progress silently.
  • Smooth surface caries: Can lead to sensitivity and discoloration on the visible, smooth surfaces between teeth.
  1. Why is it important to address symptoms of dental caries promptly?

Prompt treatment of dental caries is essential to prevent the progression of the disease, which can lead to more severe symptoms, tooth loss, and the need for more invasive dental procedures.

  1. Can dental caries lead to complications beyond toothache and sensitivity?

Yes, untreated dental caries can lead to complications such as dental abscesses, pulp infection, and systemic health issues when bacteria from the oral cavity enter the bloodstream.

  1. What role do regular dental check-ups play in managing dental caries symptoms?

Regular dental check-ups allow for early detection of dental caries, even before symptoms become apparent. This enables timely intervention and preventive measures to protect dental health.

These questions and answers should help you understand the symptoms of dental caries and prepare for a viva examination in dentistry or related fields.

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Certainly! Here are some common viva questions and their answers related to the treatment of dental caries:

  1. What are the primary goals of dental caries treatment?

The primary goals of dental caries treatment are to:

  • Remove and repair damaged tooth structure.
  • Prevent the progression of caries.
  • Restore the tooth’s form and function.
  • Alleviate pain and discomfort.
  1. What are the treatment options for dental caries?

Treatment options for dental caries depend on the severity and location of the caries and may include:

  • Fluoride treatment: In the early stages to remineralize enamel.
  • Dental fillings: For cavities, typically using materials like amalgam or composite.
  • Dental crowns: For more extensive damage.
  • Root canal therapy: If the pulp is affected.
  • Tooth extraction: In severe cases when restoration is not possible.
  1. When is fluoride treatment used in dental caries management?

Fluoride treatment is used in the early stages of caries to promote remineralization and strengthen enamel. It can be applied as a varnish or gel during dental check-ups.

  1. What are dental fillings, and how are they used to treat caries?

Dental fillings are used to repair cavities by removing the decayed tooth structure and filling the space with a restorative material, such as amalgam or composite resin, to restore the tooth’s shape and function.

  1. What are dental crowns, and when are they recommended for caries treatment?

Dental crowns are protective caps placed over damaged or weakened teeth. They are recommended when a tooth has extensive decay or structural damage that cannot be effectively treated with a filling alone.

  1. Under what circumstances is root canal therapy necessary for dental caries treatment?

Root canal therapy is required when dental caries progress to the pulp chamber, causing infection and severe pain. The procedure involves removing the infected pulp, cleaning the root canals, and sealing the tooth to prevent further infection.

  1. What is the process of tooth extraction for dental caries treatment?

Tooth extraction is considered when a tooth is extensively damaged, cannot be saved with other treatments, or poses a risk of infection spreading to neighboring teeth. The tooth is carefully removed to prevent complications.

  1. Are there non-surgical or minimally invasive treatments for dental caries?

Yes, non-surgical and minimally invasive treatments include fluoride therapy, sealants (protective coatings for vulnerable teeth), and preventive measures like improved oral hygiene and dietary modifications to halt or reverse early carious lesions.

  1. How does the choice of dental caries treatment vary with the location of the carious lesion?

The choice of treatment can vary based on location:

  • Pit and fissure caries: Often treated with dental sealants or fillings.
  • Smooth surface caries: May be addressed with fillings or other restorative options depending on the extent of damage.
  1. What is the importance of follow-up and aftercare in dental caries treatment?

Follow-up and aftercare are crucial to monitor the success of treatment, ensure the restoration is functioning correctly, and maintain oral hygiene to prevent further caries development.

These questions and answers should help you understand the various treatment options for dental caries and prepare for a viva examination in dentistry or related fields.