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Viva Question and Answers in Lipid Metabolism

Here are 50 viva questions and answers related to lipid metabolism:

  1. What is the primary function of lipids in the body?
    • Answer: Lipids serve as energy storage, insulation, and are vital components of cell membranes.
  1. Name the three main types of lipids.
    • Answer: Triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids.
  1. What is the structure of a triglyceride?
    • Answer: A triglyceride consists of three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule.
  1. What role do lipoproteins play in lipid metabolism?
    • Answer: Lipoproteins transport lipids in the bloodstream.
  1. What enzyme is responsible for the hydrolysis of triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol?
  1. What is the significance of lipolysis?
    • Answer: Lipolysis releases fatty acids from adipose tissue for energy production.
  1. How are fatty acids transported in the bloodstream?
    • Answer: Fatty acids are transported bound to albumin.
  1. Explain the process of beta-oxidation.
    • Answer: Beta-oxidation is the breakdown of fatty acids into acetyl-CoA for energy production.
  1. What is ketogenesis?
    • Answer: Ketogenesis is the synthesis of ketone bodies from fatty acids.
  1. What is the primary purpose of ketone bodies?
    • Answer: Ketone bodies serve as an alternative energy source, especially for the brain during fasting.
  1. Which organs are involved in lipid metabolism?
    • Answer: Liver, adipose tissue, and muscles.
  1. Define lipogenesis.
    • Answer: Lipogenesis is the synthesis of lipids, primarily triglycerides, from acetyl-CoA.
  1. How is acetyl-CoA generated for lipogenesis?
    • Answer: Acetyl-CoA is derived from the metabolism of glucose through glycolysis.
  1. What is the role of insulin in lipid metabolism?
    • Answer: Insulin promotes lipogenesis and inhibits lipolysis.
  1. Explain the concept of the lipid bilayer in cell membranes.
    • Answer: The lipid bilayer is a double layer of phospholipids forming the basic structure of cell membranes.
  1. What are eicosanoids?
    • Answer: Eicosanoids are signaling molecules derived from fatty acids, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
  1. How does cholesterol participate in lipid metabolism?
    • Answer: Cholesterol is a component of cell membranes and serves as a precursor for steroid hormones.
  1. What is the significance of LDL and HDL in cholesterol transport?
  1. Explain the role of bile acids in lipid digestion.
    • Answer: Bile acids emulsify dietary fats, aiding in their digestion and absorption.
  1. What is the function of lipoprotein lipase?
    • Answer: Lipoprotein lipase hydrolyzes triglycerides in lipoproteins, releasing fatty acids for cellular uptake.
  1. Describe the process of chylomicron metabolism.
    • Answer: Chylomicrons transport dietary lipids from the intestine to the tissues, where lipoprotein lipase hydrolyzes triglycerides.
  1. How does the body regulate cholesterol levels?
    • Answer: Cholesterol levels are regulated by feedback inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and LDL receptor activity.
  1. What is the role of HMG-CoA reductase in cholesterol synthesis?
    • Answer: HMG-CoA reductase is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis.
  1. Explain the term “reverse cholesterol transport.”
  1. How are omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids classified?
    • Answer: They are classified as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
  1. What are the sources of essential fatty acids in the diet?
    • Answer: Sources include fish, nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils.
  1. How does the body obtain essential fatty acids?
    • Answer: Essential fatty acids must be obtained through the diet as the body cannot synthesize them.
  1. What is lipoprotein(a), and what role does it play in lipid metabolism?
    • Answer: Lipoprotein(a) is a lipoprotein similar to LDL and may contribute to atherosclerosis.
  1. Discuss the role of adiponectin in lipid metabolism.
    • Answer: Adiponectin enhances insulin sensitivity and promotes fatty acid oxidation.
  1. How does the body regulate triglyceride levels during fasting?
    • Answer: Fasting increases lipolysis and the release of fatty acids from adipose tissue.
  1. Explain the connection between lipid metabolism and insulin resistance.
  1. What is the role of peroxisomes in lipid metabolism?
    • Answer: Peroxisomes contribute to the breakdown of very-long-chain fatty acids and synthesis of ether lipids.
  1. How does the body adapt to a low-carbohydrate diet in terms of lipid metabolism?
    • Answer: In the absence of carbohydrates, the body increases reliance on fatty acid oxidation for energy.
  1. Discuss the impact of exercise on lipid metabolism.
    • Answer: Exercise promotes lipid oxidation, improves lipid profiles, and enhances insulin sensitivity.
  1. What are lipoprotein remnants, and how are they metabolized?
    • Answer: Lipoprotein remnants are remnants of chylomicrons and VLDL after triglyceride removal, metabolized by the liver.
  1. What is the significance of lipids in brain function?
    • Answer: Lipids are essential for the structure and function of neuronal membranes.
  1. Explain the concept of lipid droplets in cells.
    • Answer: Lipid droplets are cellular organelles that store triglycerides and cholesterol esters.
  1. How does the body use ketone bodies during prolonged fasting?
    • Answer: Ketone bodies are utilized as an energy source, particularly by the brain, during prolonged fasting.
  1. Discuss the impact of statins on lipid metabolism.
    • Answer: Statins inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, reducing cholesterol synthesis and lowering LDL cholesterol levels.
  1. What is the role of carnitine in fatty acid metabolism?
  1. Explain the concept of lipid homeostasis.
    • Answer: Lipid homeostasis involves the regulation of lipid synthesis, storage, and utilization to maintain balance in the body.
  1. How do omega-3 fatty acids contribute to cardiovascular health?
    • Answer: Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
  1. Discuss the role of lipids in signal transduction.
    • Answer: Lipids, such as phospholipids, play a crucial role in cell signaling and signal transduction pathways.
  1. What is the connection between lipid metabolism and obesity?
    • Answer: Obesity is often associated with dysregulation of lipid metabolism, leading to elevated levels of circulating lipids.
  1. How does the body handle excess dietary cholesterol intake?
    • Answer: The liver regulates cholesterol levels by adjusting its synthesis and excretion in response to dietary intake.
  1. What are the effects of omega-6 fatty acids on inflammation?
    • Answer: Omega-6 fatty acids can contribute to inflammation when present in excess, especially in relation to omega-3 fatty acids.
  1. Discuss the role of apolipoproteins in lipoprotein function.
    • Answer: Apolipoproteins are proteins associated with lipoproteins that play crucial roles in lipid transport and metabolism.
  1. How does the body use lipids during periods of energy surplus?
    • Answer: Excess dietary lipids are stored in adipose tissue as triglycerides for future energy needs.
  1. Explain the impact of dietary trans fats on lipid metabolism.
    • Answer: Trans fats raise LDL cholesterol levels and lower HDL cholesterol levels, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
  1. What is the connection between lipids and hormonal regulation?

 

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