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Viva Question and Answers Related to Carbohydrate Metabolism

Certainly! Here are 50 viva questions and answers related to carbohydrate metabolism:

  1. What is carbohydrate metabolism?
    • Carbohydrate metabolism refers to the set of chemical reactions that take place in living organisms to convert carbohydrates into energy.
  2. What is the primary purpose of carbohydrate metabolism?
    • The primary purpose is to provide energy for cellular activities.
  3. Name the three main types of carbohydrates.
    • Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
  4. Which enzyme is responsible for breaking down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars in the mouth?
    • Salivary amylase.
  5. What happens to carbohydrates in the small intestine during digestion?
    • Carbohydrates are broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes such as pancreatic amylase.
  6. Which monosaccharide is commonly referred to as blood sugar?
  7. What is glycolysis?
    • Glycolysis is the initial step in the breakdown of glucose, producing pyruvate and a small amount of ATP.
  8. What happens to pyruvate in the absence of oxygen?
    • It undergoes fermentation to produce lactic acid or ethanol and carbon dioxide.
  9. Where does the Krebs cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) take place in eukaryotic cells?
  10. What is the role of the electron transport chain in carbohydrate metabolism?
    • It transfers electrons through a series of protein complexes, generating ATP.
  11. What is gluconeogenesis?
    • The synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources like amino acids and glycerol.
  12. Which hormone is responsible for lowering blood glucose levels?
  13. What is glycogen, and where is it stored in the body?
    • Glycogen is a storage form of glucose, stored in the liver and muscles.
  14. Explain the process of glycogenolysis.
    • Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen into glucose-6-phosphate.
  15. What is the role of glucagon in carbohydrate metabolism?
    • Glucagon raises blood glucose levels by promoting glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.
  16. What is the purpose of the pentose phosphate pathway?
    • It generates NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate for nucleotide synthesis.
  17. How does the body use carbohydrates during prolonged fasting or starvation?
    • It shifts to gluconeogenesis and relies on the breakdown of fats for energy.
  18. What is the significance of the Cori cycle?
    • It helps to convert lactate produced during anaerobic glycolysis back into glucose in the liver.
  19. Explain the concept of the insulin-glucagon balance.
    • It regulates blood glucose levels by coordinating the actions of insulin (lowers) and glucagon (raises).
  20. What is the role of ATP in regulating glycolysis?
  21. How does exercise impact carbohydrate metabolism?
    • Exercise increases the demand for ATP, leading to enhanced glycolysis and energy production.
  22. What is the connection between carbohydrate metabolism and the pentose phosphate pathway?
    • The pentose phosphate pathway produces NADPH, which is essential for fatty acid synthesis.
  23. How is excess glucose stored in the body?
    • Excess glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles or converted to fat for long-term storage.
  24. What is the Warburg effect in cancer cells?
    • Cancer cells often rely on aerobic glycolysis for energy production, known as the Warburg effect.
  25. How does insulin resistance affect carbohydrate metabolism?
    • Cells become less responsive to insulin, leading to elevated blood glucose levels.
  26. What is the role of the liver in carbohydrate metabolism?
    • The liver regulates blood glucose levels by storing or releasing glucose as needed.
  27. What are ketone bodies, and when are they produced?
    • Ketone bodies are produced during prolonged fasting or low carbohydrate intake and are alternative energy sources.
  28. Explain the concept of the insulin receptor and its signaling pathway.
    • The insulin receptor on cell membranes initiates a signaling cascade that regulates glucose uptake and metabolism.
  29. How does the body adapt to a high-carbohydrate diet?
    • It increases insulin sensitivity and promotes glycogen storage.
  30. What is the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in carbohydrate metabolism?
    • AMPK is activated in response to low cellular energy levels, promoting glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation.
  31. What is the significance of the Randle cycle in carbohydrate and fat metabolism?
  32. How does alcohol consumption affect carbohydrate metabolism?
    • Alcohol is converted to acetaldehyde, disrupting normal metabolic processes and contributing to liver damage.
  33. Explain the concept of glycemic index.
    • The glycemic index measures how quickly a carbohydrate-containing food raises blood glucose levels.
  34. What is the connection between carbohydrate metabolism and the TCA cycle?
    • The TCA cycle is fueled by products of glycolysis, connecting carbohydrate metabolism to energy production.
  35. How does insulin promote glucose uptake in cells?
    • Insulin stimulates the translocation of glucose transporters to the cell membrane, facilitating glucose entry.
  36. What is the significance of the hexokinase enzyme in glycolysis?
    • Hexokinase phosphorylates glucose, trapping it inside cells and initiating glycolysis.
  37. How does the body regulate blood glucose levels during sleep?
    • The liver releases glucose through glycogenolysis to maintain blood glucose levels during fasting.
  38. What is the role of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate in glycolysis regulation?
    • It activates phosphofructokinase-1, a key enzyme in glycolysis.
  39. How do carbohydrates contribute to the structure of nucleotides?
    • Ribose, a pentose sugar derived from carbohydrates, is a component of RNA.
  40. What is the role of glucose in red blood cells?
  41. Explain the concept of insulin sensitivity and resistance.
    • Insulin sensitivity refers to how effectively cells respond to insulin, while insulin resistance is reduced responsiveness.
  42. How does the body handle dietary sugars like sucrose and lactose?
    • They are broken down into monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) through enzymatic digestion.
  43. What is the role of pyruvate dehydrogenase in carbohydrate metabolism?
    • It converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, linking glycolysis to the TCA cycle.
  44. How does the body use carbohydrates during high-intensity exercise?
    • Glycolysis is the primary energy source, producing ATP rapidly.
  45. What is the connection between carbohydrate metabolism and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)?
    • IGFs play a role in cell growth and division and are influenced by insulin levels.
  46. How do ketone bodies provide an alternative energy source during fasting?
    • Ketone bodies are produced from fatty acids and can be utilized by tissues, including the brain, as an energy source.
  47. What is the role of pyruvate carboxylase in gluconeogenesis?
    • Pyruvate carboxylase converts pyruvate to oxaloacetate, a precursor in gluconeogenesis.
  48. How does diabetes mellitus affect carbohydrate metabolism?
    • In diabetes, there is impaired insulin function, leading to elevated blood glucose levels.
  49. What is the role of glycogen synthase in glycogen synthesis?
    • Glycogen synthase catalyzes the formation of glycogen from glucose.
  50. How does the body balance carbohydrate and lipid metabolism under different physiological conditions?
    • The body adapts based on energy needs, switching between carbohydrate and lipid metabolism to maintain homeostasis.

These questions cover various aspects of carbohydrate metabolism, including digestion, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogen metabolism, insulin regulation, and related topics.

 

 

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