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Viva Question and Answers Related to Dental intraoral periapical radiographs (IOPA)

Here are 30 potential viva questions and answers related to dental intraoral periapical radiographs (IOPA):

  1. Q: What is an Intraoral Periapical Radiograph (IOPA)?
    • A: An IOPA is a dental X-ray that shows the entire tooth, from the crown to the apex, and surrounding structures.
  2. Q: Why are IOPA radiographs necessary in dentistry?
    • A: IOPA radiographs help in diagnosing dental caries, periapical infections, periodontal diseases, and assessing the root canal system.
  3. Q: How does the size of the film affect the image resolution in IOPA?
    • A: Smaller film sizes provide higher resolution images due to reduced magnification.
  4. Q: What is the ideal vertical angulation for taking a maxillary anterior IOPA?
    • A: +40 degrees.
  5. Q: Describe the bisecting angle technique.
  6. Q: How is the paralleling technique different from the bisecting angle technique?
    • A: In the paralleling technique, the film and tooth are parallel to each other, resulting in less image distortion compared to the bisecting angle technique.
  7. Q: What are the common errors associated with the bisecting angle technique?
    • A: Foreshortening and Elongation.
  8. Q: What is a bitewing radiograph, and why is it commonly used?
    • A: A bitewing radiograph shows the crowns of both the upper and lower teeth in occlusion and is commonly used to detect interproximal caries.
  9. Q: How do you set up a patient for a bitewing radiograph?
    • A: The film is placed parallel to the occlusal surfaces, and the central X-ray beam is directed perpendicular to the film and teeth.
  10. Q: What is the purpose of using a lead apron during dental radiography?
  11. Q: Explain the concept of radiographic density.
    • A: Radiographic density refers to the degree of darkening on a radiograph and is influenced by factors like exposure time and radiation intensity.
  12. Q: What are the contraindications for taking dental radiographs in pregnant patients?
    • A: The use of radiographs in pregnant patients should be minimized, especially during the first trimester, unless essential for diagnosis and treatment.
  13. Q: How do you distinguish between a periapical cyst and a granuloma on an IOPA?
    • A: A periapical cyst typically appears as a well-defined radiolucent lesion, while a granuloma may show less defined borders.
  14. Q: What is the significance of the lamina dura in IOPA radiographs?
    • A: The lamina dura represents the compact bone lining the tooth socket, and its integrity is crucial for assessing periodontal health.
  15. Q: How can you differentiate between an unerupted tooth and an impacted tooth on an IOPA?
  16. Q: What are the potential complications of taking radiographs with improper angulation?
    • A: Distorted images, overlapping structures, and inaccurate diagnosis.
  17. Q: Explain the concept of the target-receptor distance in dental radiography.
    • A: The distance between the X-ray tube target and the receptor (film or sensor). Increased distance reduces radiation intensity and scatter.
  18. Q: How do you compensate for the increased object-to-film distance in the paralleling technique?
    • A: Use longer exposure times to maintain adequate image density.
  19. Q: What are the common causes of artifacts in dental radiographs?
    • A: Patient movement, processing errors, and foreign objects.
  20. Q: Describe the appearance of a healthy periapical region on an IOPA.
  21. Q: How do you distinguish between an amalgam tattoo and a periapical radiolucency?
    • A: An amalgam tattoo is a benign radiopacity caused by amalgam particles, while a periapical radiolucency may indicate pathology.
  22. Q: What precautionary measures should be taken for a patient with a gag reflex during radiography?
    • A: Use topical anesthetics, distraction techniques, and consider alternative imaging methods if necessary.
  23. Q: Explain the concept of radiographic contrast.
    • A: Radiographic contrast refers to the differences in density between adjacent structures, influencing the visibility of details in the image.
  24. Q: How does radiation exposure from dental radiographs compare to natural background radiation?
    • A: Dental radiographs contribute a small fraction to the natural background radiation received by individuals.
  25. Q: Why is it important to use a beam alignment device during dental radiography?
    • A: To ensure accurate positioning and minimize radiation exposure to surrounding tissues.
  26. Q: What is the purpose of using a lead thyroid collar during dental radiography?
    • A: To protect the thyroid gland from radiation exposure.
  27. Q: Describe the appearance of a periapical abscess on an IOPA.
    • A: A radiolucent area around the apex of the tooth, often associated with loss of lamina dura.
  28. Q: How do you differentiate between a radicular cyst and a dentigerous cyst on an IOPA?
    • A: A radicular cyst is associated with the root of a non-vital tooth, while a dentigerous cyst surrounds the crown of an unerupted tooth.
  29. Q: Discuss the role of dental radiography in implant planning.
    • A: Radiographs help assess bone density, anatomy, and identify potential obstacles for precise implant placement.
  30. Q: How does the use of digital sensors impact radiation exposure compared to traditional film?



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