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Viva Question and Answers Related to Fluid and Hemodynamic disorders

Here are 30 potential viva questions and answers related to fluid and hemodynamic disorders:

  1. What is the difference between intravascular and extravascular fluids?
    • Intravascular fluids are found within blood vessels, while extravascular fluids are located outside the vessels in interstitial spaces.
  2. Define fluid balance.
    • Fluid balance refers to the equilibrium between fluid intake and output in the body, ensuring that the total body water remains stable.
  3. How is blood pressure regulated in the body?
    • Blood pressure is regulated by the autonomic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and atrial natriuretic peptide.
  4. Explain the concept of osmotic pressure.
    • Osmotic pressure is the pressure exerted by solute particles in a solution, influencing the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane.
  5. What is hypovolemia, and what are its causes?
  6. Describe the pathophysiology of edema.
    • Edema is the abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces. It can result from increased capillary permeability, decreased plasma oncotic pressure, or lymphatic obstruction.
  7. How does the lymphatic system contribute to fluid balance?
    • The lymphatic system helps maintain fluid balance by draining excess interstitial fluid and returning it to the bloodstream.
  8. Discuss the role of the heart in hemodynamics.
    • The heart pumps blood, creating a pressure gradient that drives the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
  9. Explain the Starling forces and their role in fluid movement.
    • Starling forces include hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, influencing the movement of fluids across capillary membranes.
  10. What is cardiac output, and how is it calculated?
  11. Define systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
    • Systolic blood pressure is the pressure exerted on the arterial walls during ventricular contraction, while diastolic pressure occurs during ventricular relaxation.
  12. How does hypertension impact the cardiovascular system?
    • Hypertension increases the workload of the heart and can lead to damage in blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and other cardiovascular issues.
  13. Discuss the causes and consequences of cardiogenic shock.
    • Cardiogenic shock results from inadequate cardiac output. Causes include myocardial infarction, heart failure, and severe arrhythmias.
  14. Explain the role of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in fluid balance.
    • ADH regulates water reabsorption in the kidneys, helping to concentrate urine and conserve water in response to dehydration.
  15. What is sepsis, and how does it affect hemodynamics?
    • Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection that can lead to fluid shifts, vasodilation, and altered blood flow, impacting hemodynamics.
  16. Describe the causes of hypervolemia.
    • Hypervolemia occurs due to an excess of extracellular fluid and can be caused by conditions like heart failure, renal failure, and excessive fluid intake.
  17. Discuss the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in fluid and electrolyte balance.
    • This system regulates blood pressure and fluid balance by controlling sodium and water retention in the kidneys.
  18. What is the difference between primary and secondary hypertension?
  19. Explain the concept of preload and afterload in cardiac function.
    • Preload is the stretch of the heart muscle before contraction, influenced by venous return. Afterload is the resistance the heart must overcome to eject blood, influenced by arterial pressure.
  20. How does the body respond to hemorrhagic shock?
    • Responses to hemorrhagic shock include activation of the sympathetic nervous system, release of vasoactive substances, and fluid shifts to maintain perfusion.
  21. Discuss the impact of ascites on fluid balance.
    • Ascites is the accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, often seen in liver disease. It affects fluid balance by altering the distribution of intravascular and extravascular fluids.
  22. What is the role of the baroreceptor reflex in blood pressure regulation?
    • Baroreceptors detect changes in blood pressure and send signals to the cardiovascular system to adjust heart rate and blood vessel diameter.
  23. Explain the relationship between atherosclerosis and hemodynamics.
    • Atherosclerosis, the buildup of plaques in arteries, can lead to reduced blood flow and increased resistance, impacting hemodynamics.
  24. How does the body compensate for respiratory acidosis in the context of fluid balance?
    • Respiratory acidosis leads to increased retention of bicarbonate ions in the kidneys, aiming to maintain acid-base balance.
  25. Discuss the effects of hypothyroidism on fluid balance.
    • Hypothyroidism can lead to fluid retention, decreased cardiac output, and impaired renal function, affecting overall fluid balance.
  26. What role do natriuretic peptides play in fluid regulation?
  27. Explain the concept of effective arterial blood volume.
    • Effective arterial blood volume is the portion of total blood volume that perfuses the arterial system, influencing blood pressure and cardiac output.
  28. How does diabetes insipidus affect fluid balance?
    • Diabetes insipidus results from insufficient ADH production or action, leading to excessive urine output and potential dehydration.
  29. Discuss the impact of anemia on hemodynamics.
    • Anemia, a decrease in red blood cell count or hemoglobin levels, reduces oxygen-carrying capacity, affecting cardiac output and tissue perfusion.
  30. What are the potential complications of pulmonary edema?

 

 

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