You are here: Home » Dental Care » Viva Question and Answers Related to GIT and Liver

Viva Question and Answers Related to GIT and Liver

Here are 50 viva questions and answers related to the Gastrointestinal (GIT) system and liver:

  1. What are the main functions of the liver? The liver has several functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, production of bile, storage of glycogen, and metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.
  2. What is the role of bile in digestion? Bile helps in the emulsification and digestion of fats. It breaks down large fat globules into smaller droplets, making it easier for enzymes to digest them.
  3. Describe the structure of the small intestine. The small intestine consists of three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. It is lined with villi and microvilli, which increase its surface area for absorption of nutrients.
  4. What is peristalsis, and how does it function in the digestive system? Peristalsis is the wave-like contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food along the digestive tract. It helps in the mechanical digestion and propulsion of food.
  5. What is the role of gastric acid in the stomach? Gastric acid, also known as stomach acid, helps in the digestion of proteins by activating pepsinogen to pepsin and creating an acidic environment for enzyme activity.
  6. What are the components of bile, and what is its source? Bile is composed of bile salts, cholesterol, bilirubin, phospholipids, and water. It is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
  7. How does the liver contribute to blood glucose regulation? The liver stores glucose as glycogen and can release it into the bloodstream when blood glucose levels are low, helping to maintain a stable blood sugar level.
  8. What is the function of the pancreas in digestion? The pancreas secretes enzymes such as amylase, lipase, and proteases into the small intestine to aid in the digestion of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
  9. What are the major digestive enzymes, and where are they produced? Amylase (produced in the salivary glands and pancreas), lipase (produced in the pancreas), and proteases (produced in the stomach and pancreas) are major digestive enzymes.
  10. How does the absorption of nutrients occur in the small intestine? Nutrient absorption in the small intestine occurs through the villi and microvilli, where nutrients like amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, and vitamins are absorbed into the bloodstream.
  11. What is the role of the colon in the digestive system? The colon, or large intestine, absorbs water and electrolytes from undigested food, forms feces, and helps in the elimination of waste from the body.
  12. Describe the structure and function of the hepatic portal system. The hepatic portal system is a network of veins that carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver. It allows the liver to process and detoxify nutrients absorbed from the digestive tract before they enter the general circulation. Viva Question and Answers Related to Inflammation
  13. What are the common causes of liver diseases? Common causes of liver diseases include viral infections (such as hepatitis), alcohol abuse, fatty liver disease, autoimmune disorders, and genetic conditions.
  14. What is cirrhosis, and how does it affect liver function? Cirrhosis is a condition characterized by the scarring of liver tissue, which impairs liver function. It can lead to portal hypertension, liver failure, and other complications.
  15. How does the liver contribute to the metabolism of drugs and toxins? The liver metabolizes drugs and toxins through enzymatic reactions, converting them into less harmful or more easily excretable forms for elimination from the body.
  16. What is the role of the gallbladder in digestion? The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver. When stimulated by the hormone cholecystokinin, it contracts and releases bile into the small intestine to aid in fat digestion.
  17. What are the functions of the digestive enzymes amylase, lipase, and protease? Amylase breaks down carbohydrates (starches) into sugars, lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol, and protease breaks down proteins into amino acids.
  18. How does the pancreas regulate blood sugar levels? The pancreas secretes insulin to lower blood sugar levels by promoting the uptake of glucose into cells for energy. It also secretes glucagon to raise blood sugar levels by stimulating the release of stored glucose from the liver.
  19. What are the different types of hepatitis viruses, and how are they transmitted? The main types of hepatitis viruses are hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. They are transmitted through various routes, including contaminated food or water (hepatitis A and E), blood or body fluids (hepatitis B, C, and D), and sexual contact. Viva Questions Related to Features of Different Anemias
  20. What are the symptoms of liver disease? Symptoms of liver disease may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, dark urine, and unexplained weight loss.
  21. How does the liver contribute to the synthesis of plasma proteins? The liver synthesizes plasma proteins such as albumin, clotting factors (e.g., fibrinogen), and transport proteins (e.g., transferrin) essential for maintaining blood volume, clotting function, and nutrient transport.
  22. What is the role of bile salts in fat digestion and absorption? Bile salts emulsify fat molecules into smaller droplets, increasing their surface area for lipase enzymes to digest them into fatty acids and glycerol. This aids in the absorption of fats in the small intestine.
  23. What is the significance of the enterohepatic circulation? Enterohepatic circulation refers to the recycling of bile salts between the liver and the small intestine. It helps conserve bile salts and maintains their effectiveness in fat digestion.
  24. How does alcohol consumption affect the liver? Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to alcoholic liver disease, causing inflammation, fatty liver, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and an increased risk of liver cancer.
  25. What are the risk factors for developing gallstones? Risk factors for gallstones include obesity, rapid weight loss, female gender, pregnancy, age (over 40), a sedentary lifestyle, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes and liver disease.
  26. How does the liver contribute to the regulation of cholesterol levels? The liver synthesizes cholesterol and regulates its levels by producing bile salts, removing excess cholesterol from the bloodstream, and converting cholesterol into bile acids for excretion.
  27. What is the role of gut microbiota in digestion and health? Gut microbiota play a crucial role in digestion, nutrient absorption, immune function, and the production of certain vitamins (e.g., vitamin K). Imbalances in gut bacteria can contribute to digestive disorders and systemic health issues. Viva Question and Answers Related to Thyroid Glands
  28. How is bile secretion regulated in the liver and gallbladder? Bile secretion is regulated by hormonal signals such as cholecystokinin (CCK), which stimulates the gallbladder to contract and release stored bile into the small intestine during digestion.
  29. What are the functions of Kupffer cells in the liver? Kupffer cells are specialized macrophages in the liver that help remove foreign particles, pathogens, and damaged cells from the blood, contributing to the liver’s immune and detoxification functions.
  30. What is the role of the hepatic artery and portal vein in liver blood supply? The hepatic artery delivers oxygenated blood to the liver, while the portal vein carries nutrient-rich blood from the digestive organs. These blood vessels merge within the liver sinusoids, allowing the liver to receive both oxygen and nutrients.
  31. What are the consequences of liver failure? Liver failure can lead to serious complications such as hepatic encephalopathy (brain dysfunction), ascites (abdominal fluid buildup), coagulopathy (bleeding disorders), and eventually, multi-organ failure.
  32. How does the liver contribute to the metabolism of proteins? The liver metabolizes proteins by converting amino acids into new proteins, producing urea as a waste product, and synthesizing plasma proteins essential for maintaining blood osmotic pressure and immune function.
  33. What is the significance of the gut-brain axis in digestive health? The gut-brain axis refers to the bidirectional communication between the gut and the central nervous system. It plays a role in regulating digestion, gut motility, immune responses, and emotional well-being.
  34. How does the liver participate in the breakdown of old red blood cells? The liver removes old red blood cells from circulation and breaks down hemoglobin into heme and globin. Heme is converted into bilirubin, which is then excreted in bile or converted into biliverdin and further metabolized.
  35. What are the main functions of the gallbladder? The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile, releases bile into the small intestine during digestion, and aids in the emulsification and digestion of fats. Viva Questions and Answers Related to Osteology
  36. Describe the structure and function of the biliary system. The biliary system includes the bile ducts, gallbladder, and liver. It transports bile from the liver to the small intestine, where bile aids in fat digestion and absorption.
  37. How does the liver contribute to the regulation of blood pH? The liver helps regulate blood pH by producing and excreting bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) in bile, which can neutralize acids and maintain the body’s acid-base balance.
  38. What are the roles of hepatic stellate cells in liver physiology? Hepatic stellate cells play a role in liver fibrosis and wound healing by producing extracellular matrix proteins and participating in tissue remodeling processes in response to liver injury.
  39. What is the significance of the gut-liver axis in metabolic health? The gut-liver axis involves interactions between the gut microbiota, intestinal epithelium, portal circulation, and liver. It influences metabolic processes, immune responses, and liver function.
  40. How does liver regeneration occur after injury? Liver regeneration involves the proliferation of hepatocytes and other liver cells to replace damaged tissue. Growth factors, cytokines, and signaling pathways regulate this process.
  41. What is the role of bile ducts in the transport of bile? Bile ducts transport bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage and concentration, and then to the small intestine for fat digestion and absorption. Viva Question and Answers related to Embryology
  42. How does liver disease impact drug metabolism and clearance? Liver disease can impair drug metabolism and clearance, leading to altered drug efficacy, increased drug toxicity, and the need for dosage adjustments or medication monitoring.
  43. What are the risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)? Risk factors for NAFLD include obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol levels, sedentary lifestyle, and metabolic syndrome.
  44. What are the functions of bile acids in lipid digestion and absorption? Bile acids emulsify dietary fats, facilitate the formation of micelles for lipid absorption, and help transport lipids across the intestinal epithelium into enterocytes.
  45. How does the liver contribute to the regulation of blood volume and pressure? The liver produces plasma proteins like albumin, which helps maintain blood volume and osmotic pressure. It also synthesizes factors involved in blood clotting and vascular regulation.
  46. What is the role of the liver in the metabolism of bilirubin? The liver metabolizes bilirubin by conjugating it with glucuronic acid to form water-soluble bilirubin glucuronides, which are excreted in bile and urine. Viva Question and Answers Related to Vascular Supply of Head and Neck
  47. How does the liver process and eliminate ammonia in the body? The liver converts ammonia (a byproduct of protein metabolism) into urea through the urea cycle, which is then excreted in urine. Dysfunction of this process can lead to hyperammonemia and neurological symptoms.
  48. What are the functions of the sinusoidal endothelial cells in the liver? Sinusoidal endothelial cells line the liver sinusoids and play a role in nutrient exchange, immune surveillance, and the regulation of blood flow within the liver.
  49. What is the role of bile in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins? Bile solubilizes fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) in the intestinal lumen, allowing their absorption into enterocytes and incorporation into chylomicrons for transport in the lymphatic system.
  50. How does the liver contribute to the synthesis and breakdown of glycogen? The liver synthesizes glycogen from glucose for storage and releases glucose from glycogen stores during periods of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) to maintain energy balance. Viva Questions and Answers related to Mouth, Pharynx, and Larynx

These questions cover a wide range of topics related to the gastrointestinal system (GIT) and liver physiology, including anatomy, function, regulation, diseases, and clinical relevance.


Leave a Reply