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Viva Question and Answers Related to Inflammation

Here are some viva questions and answers related to inflammation:

  1. Q: Define inflammation.
    • A: Inflammation is the body’s natural and protective response to injury or infection, characterized by redness, swelling, heat, pain, and sometimes loss of function. It involves a complex interplay of immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
  1. Q: What are the main components of the inflammatory response?
    • A: The main components include vasodilation (increased blood flow), increased vascular permeability, recruitment of immune cells (such as neutrophils and macrophages), and release of inflammatory mediators like cytokines and chemokines.
  1. Q: What is the purpose of vasodilation during inflammation?
    • A: Vasodilation increases blood flow to the affected area, facilitating the delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and immune cells. It also contributes to the characteristic redness and warmth observed in inflamed tissues.
  1. Q: Name some pro-inflammatory cytokines.
    • A: Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Interleukin-1 (IL-1), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) are examples of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
  1. Q: How do anti-inflammatory medications, like NSAIDs, work?
    • A: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) work by inhibiting enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (COX), which reduces the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation, and by blocking their synthesis, NSAIDs help alleviate inflammation and its associated symptoms. Viva Question and Answers in Scalp and Face
  1. Q: What is the role of neutrophils in inflammation?
    • A: Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the early stages of inflammation. They are among the first immune cells to migrate to the site of injury or infection, where they engulf and destroy pathogens.
  1. Q: Explain the difference between acute and chronic inflammation.
    • A: Acute inflammation is a rapid and short-term response to injury or infection, characterized by the presence of neutrophils. Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is a prolonged and sustained response involving lymphocytes and macrophages. It can contribute to various diseases if not properly regulated.
  1. Q: How does the complement system contribute to inflammation?
    • A: The complement system is a group of proteins that enhance the immune response. It can promote inflammation by stimulating vasodilation, increasing vascular permeability, and attracting immune cells to the site of infection or injury.
  1. Q: What is the resolution phase of inflammation?
    • A: The resolution phase is the final stage of inflammation, during which the damaged tissues are repaired, and the inflammatory response is terminated. Resolution involves the removal of immune cells and debris, tissue regeneration, and the restoration of normal function.
  1. Q: Can inflammation be harmful?
  • A: While inflammation is a vital part of the immune response, chronic or excessive inflammation can be harmful and contribute to various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammatory conditions, and certain cancers. Balancing the inflammatory response is crucial for maintaining health. Viva Question and Answers in Antifungal and Antiviral Drugs

Here are some viva questions and answers related specifically to acute inflammation:

  1. Q: Define acute inflammation.
    • A: Acute inflammation is the immediate and early response of the body to injury or infection. It is a rapid and localized process that aims to eliminate the cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult, and establish a repair process.
  1. Q: What are the cardinal signs of inflammation?
    • A: The cardinal signs of inflammation are redness (rubor), swelling (tumor), heat (calor), pain (dolor), and loss of function. These manifestations are indicative of increased blood flow, vascular permeability, and the infiltration of immune cells at the site of injury or infection.
  1. Q: Describe the sequence of events in acute inflammation.
    • A: The sequence of events includes vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, migration of leukocytes (mainly neutrophils) to the site of injury, phagocytosis of microbes or debris, and resolution involving removal of inflammatory cells and tissue repair.
  1. Q: What is the role of histamine in acute inflammation?
    • A: Histamine is released during acute inflammation and contributes to vasodilation and increased vascular permeability. It is released by mast cells and basophils, promoting the recruitment of immune cells to the site of injury.  Viva Questions and Answers Related to Bacteriology
  1. Q: Explain the process of leukocyte recruitment during acute inflammation.
    • A: Leukocyte recruitment involves a series of steps, including rolling, adhesion, and transmigration. Initially, leukocytes (mainly neutrophils) roll along the endothelial surface, adhere to the endothelial cells, and then transmigrate through the vessel wall to reach the site of injury or infection.
  1. Q: What are cytokines, and how do they contribute to acute inflammation?
    • A: Cytokines are signaling molecules that mediate communication between cells. During acute inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6) are released, promoting vasodilation, increasing vascular permeability, and attracting immune cells to the inflamed area. Viva Question and Answers Related to Dental Anatomy
  1. Q: How is acute inflammation different from chronic inflammation?
    • A: Acute inflammation is a rapid and self-limiting response to injury or infection, typically lasting for a short duration. Chronic inflammation, in contrast, is a prolonged and sustained response that involves immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages and can contribute to tissue damage and pathology.
  1. Q: What is the role of arachidonic acid in acute inflammation?
    • A: Arachidonic acid is a precursor of eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are involved in the inflammatory process. These molecules mediate various aspects of inflammation, including vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, and the recruitment of immune cells.
  1. Q: How do nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) work in acute inflammation?
    • A: NSAIDs inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), reducing the production of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. By doing so, they help alleviate the symptoms of inflammation, including pain, swelling, and fever.
  1. Q: What is the significance of resolving acute inflammation properly?
  • A: Proper resolution of acute inflammation is essential to prevent the progression to chronic inflammation. It involves the removal of inflammatory cells, clearance of debris, and tissue repair, ensuring the restoration of normal tissue function. Unresolved inflammation can lead to chronic diseases and tissue damage. Viva Question and Answers Related to Instruments used in Pedodontics.

Here are some viva questions and answers related specifically to chronic inflammation:

  1. Q: Define chronic inflammation.
    • A: Chronic inflammation is a prolonged and sustained inflammatory response that lasts for an extended period, often weeks, months, or even years. Unlike acute inflammation, chronic inflammation involves a more complex immune cell response and can lead to tissue damage.
  1. Q: What are the main cellular players in chronic inflammation?
    • A: Chronic inflammation involves the infiltration of lymphocytes (T and B cells), macrophages, and other immune cells. These cells contribute to a more prolonged and adaptive immune response compared to the predominantly neutrophilic response seen in acute inflammation.
  1. Q: How does chronic inflammation differ from acute inflammation in terms of duration and cellular involvement?
    • A: Chronic inflammation is characterized by its prolonged duration and involves a more diverse set of immune cells, including lymphocytes and macrophages. Acute inflammation is a rapid and short-lived response primarily mediated by neutrophils. Viva Question and Answers Related to Cardiovascular System
  1. Q: What are the causes of chronic inflammation?
    • A: Chronic inflammation can be caused by persistent infections, autoimmune disorders, prolonged exposure to irritants or toxins, and unresolved acute inflammation. It is also associated with various chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease.
  1. Q: Explain the role of macrophages in chronic inflammation.
    • A: Macrophages are key players in chronic inflammation, serving as phagocytes and antigen-presenting cells. They release pro-inflammatory cytokines and contribute to tissue remodeling. In chronic inflammation, macrophages can become activated and form granulomas.
  1. Q: What is granulomatous inflammation?
  1. Q: How does chronic inflammation contribute to tissue damage and fibrosis?
    • A: Prolonged exposure to inflammatory mediators and immune cells in chronic inflammation can lead to tissue damage and the activation of fibroblasts. Fibroblasts produce collagen, leading to fibrosis, which can compromise tissue structure and function.
  1. Q: What are some systemic effects of chronic inflammation?
    • A: Chronic inflammation can lead to systemic effects such as fatigue, weight loss, and anemia. Additionally, it is implicated in the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and certain cancers.
  1. Q: How is chronic inflammation diagnosed?
    • A: Diagnosis involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests (e.g., inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein), and imaging studies. Biopsy of affected tissues may be performed to confirm the presence of chronic inflammatory changes.
  1. Q: What are the therapeutic approaches for managing chronic inflammation?

 

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