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viva question and answers related to malignant tumors

Here are 50 viva questions and answers related to malignant tumors:
  1. What is a malignant tumor?
    • A malignant tumor is a cancerous growth that can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body.
  2. How do malignant tumors differ from benign tumors?
    • Malignant tumors are cancerous and have the potential to spread to other parts of the body, while benign tumors are non-cancerous and typically do not spread.
  3. What are the common types of malignant tumors?
    • Common types of malignant tumors include carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, and leukemia.
  4. What causes malignant tumors?
    • Malignant tumors are caused by genetic mutations that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division.
  5. How are malignant tumors diagnosed?
  6. What are the risk factors for developing malignant tumors?
    • Risk factors for malignant tumors include smoking, exposure to radiation, family history of cancer, and certain genetic mutations.
  7. What are the treatment options for malignant tumors?
    • Treatment options for malignant tumors may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.
  8. What is metastasis in the context of malignant tumors?
    • Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the primary tumor to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.
  9. What are the symptoms of malignant tumors?
    • Symptoms of malignant tumors vary depending on the type and location but may include lumps, abnormal bleeding, changes in bowel or bladder habits, and unexplained weight loss.
  10. How is the stage of a malignant tumor determined?
  11. What is the prognosis for patients with malignant tumors?
    • The prognosis for patients with malignant tumors depends on various factors including the type and stage of the tumor, response to treatment, and overall health of the patient.
  12. What is the role of genetics in malignant tumors?
    • Genetic mutations play a significant role in the development of malignant tumors, and certain inherited genetic mutations can increase the risk of cancer.
  13. How does smoking contribute to the development of malignant tumors?
    • Smoking is a major risk factor for several types of malignant tumors, including lung cancer, because it introduces carcinogens into the body that can damage cells and lead to cancer.
  14. What is the difference between primary and secondary malignant tumors?
    • Primary malignant tumors originate in the tissue where they are found, while secondary malignant tumors (metastases) spread from a primary tumor to other parts of the body.
  15. What are the challenges in treating metastatic malignant tumors?
    • Treating metastatic malignant tumors can be challenging because the cancer has spread to multiple sites, requiring a comprehensive approach that may include multiple treatment modalities.
  16. How does chemotherapy work in treating malignant tumors?
  17. What are the side effects of chemotherapy?
    • Common side effects of chemotherapy include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to infections.
  18. What is the role of radiation therapy in treating malignant tumors?
    • Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to target and destroy cancer cells, either as a standalone treatment or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy.
  19. How does immunotherapy differ from traditional cancer treatments?
    • Immunotherapy works by enhancing the body’s immune response to cancer cells, whereas traditional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy directly target the cancer cells.
  20. What are the types of immunotherapy used in treating malignant tumors?
    • Types of immunotherapy used in treating malignant tumors include checkpoint inhibitors, CAR-T cell therapy, and therapeutic vaccines.
  21. How does targeted therapy work in treating malignant tumors?
    • Targeted therapy uses drugs or other substances to specifically target cancer cells based on their genetic or molecular characteristics, minimizing damage to healthy cells.
  22. What are the challenges in developing targeted therapy for malignant tumors?
    • Challenges in developing targeted therapy for malignant tumors include identifying appropriate targets, overcoming resistance mechanisms, and managing potential side effects.
  23. What is the role of surgery in treating malignant tumors?
  24. How does hormone therapy work in treating hormone-sensitive malignant tumors?
    • Hormone therapy works by blocking the production or action of hormones that can fuel the growth of hormone-sensitive malignant tumors such as breast and prostate cancer.
  25. What is the role of palliative care in the management of malignant tumors?
    • Palliative care focuses on improving the quality of life for patients with malignant tumors by addressing symptoms, managing pain, and providing emotional support.
  26. How does diet and lifestyle impact the risk of developing malignant tumors?
    • A healthy diet and lifestyle, including regular exercise and avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, can reduce the risk of developing malignant tumors.
  27. What are the psychological challenges faced by patients with malignant tumors?
    • Patients with malignant tumors may experience psychological challenges such as anxiety, depression, fear of recurrence, and coping with the emotional impact of their diagnosis and treatment. Viva Question and Answers related to Embryology
  28. How does early detection impact the prognosis of malignant tumors?
    • Early detection of malignant tumors can lead to more successful treatment outcomes and improve the chances of long-term survival.
  29. What are the screening methods used for detecting malignant tumors?
    • Screening methods for detecting malignant tumors may include mammograms, colonoscopies, Pap smears, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, and imaging tests for certain high-risk populations.
  30. What are the genetic factors that increase the risk of developing malignant tumors?
    • Genetic factors that increase the risk of developing malignant tumors include inherited gene mutations such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 for breast and ovarian cancer, as well as Lynch syndrome for colorectal cancer.
  31. How does age influence the risk of developing malignant tumors?
    • The risk of developing malignant tumors increases with age, as genetic mutations accumulate over time and the body’s ability to repair damaged cells may decline.
  32. What is the role of angiogenesis in the growth and spread of malignant tumors?
  33. How does inflammation contribute to the development of malignant tumors?
    • Chronic inflammation can promote the development of malignant tumors by creating a microenvironment that supports cell growth, angiogenesis, and immune evasion.
  34. What are the environmental factors that contribute to the development of malignant tumors?
    • Environmental factors such as exposure to carcinogens, pollutants, ultraviolet radiation, and infectious agents can increase the risk of developing malignant tumors.
  35. How does obesity influence the risk of developing malignant tumors?
    • Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing malignant tumors, particularly for cancers of the breast, colon, pancreas, and uterus, due to hormonal changes and chronic inflammation associated with obesity.
  36. What is the role of stem cells in the development of malignant tumors?
    • Stem cells have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cell types, including cancer cells, contributing to the growth and heterogeneity of malignant tumors.
  37. How does the tumor microenvironment impact the behavior of malignant tumors?
    • The tumor microenvironment, which includes cells, blood vessels, and extracellular matrix components, plays a crucial role in regulating the growth, invasion, and response to treatment of malignant tumors.
  38. What are the molecular pathways involved in the progression of malignant tumors?
  39. What are the challenges in developing targeted therapies for malignant tumors?
    • Challenges in developing targeted therapies for malignant tumors include tumor heterogeneity, acquired resistance, off-target effects, and the need for personalized treatment approaches.
  40. How does epigenetic regulation contribute to the development of malignant tumors?
    • Epigenetic regulation, which involves changes in gene expression without altering the underlying DNA sequence, can influence the development and progression of malignant tumors by affecting cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival.
  41. What is the role of the immune system in recognizing and eliminating malignant tumors?
    • The immune system plays a critical role in recognizing and eliminating malignant tumors through mechanisms such as immune surveillance, T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and activation of immune checkpoints.
  42. How do oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes contribute to the development of malignant tumors?
    • Oncogenes are genes that promote cell growth and division, while tumor suppressor genes regulate cell cycle progression and DNA repair; mutations in these genes can lead to the development of malignant tumors.
  43. What are the strategies for preventing the development of malignant tumors?
    • Strategies for preventing the development of malignant tumors include lifestyle modifications (e.g., healthy diet, regular exercise, avoiding tobacco), vaccination against infectious agents (e.g., HPV, HBV), and early detection/screening programs.
  44. How does angiogenesis-targeted therapy work in treating malignant tumors?
  45. What are the challenges in early detection and diagnosis of malignant tumors?
    • Challenges in early detection and diagnosis of malignant tumors include nonspecific symptoms, lack of effective screening tests for certain types of cancer, and limitations in imaging techniques for detecting small tumors or micrometastases.
  46. What are the differences in treatment approaches for localized versus metastatic malignant tumors?
    • Treatment approaches for localized malignant tumors may include surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy, while treatment for metastatic malignant tumors often involves systemic therapies such as targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or combination chemotherapy regimens.
  47. How does the tumor microenvironment influence response to treatment in malignant tumors?
    • The tumor microenvironment can influence response to treatment in malignant tumors by modulating drug delivery, immune cell infiltration, and signaling pathways involved in tumor cell survival and proliferation.
  48. What are the emerging therapies for treating malignant tumors?
    • Emerging therapies for treating malignant tumors include adoptive cell therapies (e.g., CAR-T cell therapy), epigenetic modifiers, cancer vaccines, and novel targeted agents that exploit specific vulnerabilities in cancer cells.
  49. What is the role of multidisciplinary teams in managing malignant tumors?
    • Multidisciplinary teams, including oncologists, surgeons, radiologists, pathologists, and other specialists, collaborate to develop comprehensive treatment plans and coordinate care for patients with malignant tumors.
  50. How does the concept of precision medicine apply to the treatment of malignant tumors?
    • Precision medicine involves tailoring treatment strategies based on the molecular and genetic characteristics of individual tumors, allowing for more targeted and effective therapies while minimizing side effects. Viva Question and Answers Related to Benign tumors

These questions cover various aspects of malignant tumors, including their biology, diagnosis, treatment, risk factors, and emerging therapeutic approaches.

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