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Viva Question and Answers Related to Mineral Metabolism

Here are 25 viva questions and answers related to mineral metabolism:

  1. What is mineral metabolism?
    • Mineral metabolism refers to the processes by which minerals are absorbed, utilized, stored, and excreted by the body.
  2. Which organs are primarily involved in mineral metabolism?
    • Organs such as the kidneys, intestines, bones, and parathyroid glands play significant roles in mineral metabolism.
  3. What are the main minerals involved in metabolism?
    • Minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and iron are crucial for various metabolic processes.
  4. How is calcium absorbed in the body?
    • Calcium is primarily absorbed in the small intestine, mainly in the duodenum and jejunum, through active transport mechanisms.
  5. What role does vitamin D play in calcium metabolism?
    • Vitamin D enhances the absorption of calcium in the intestine and promotes calcium deposition in bones.
  6. How is phosphorus regulated in the body?
  7. What is the significance of magnesium in metabolism?
    • Magnesium is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions, including energy metabolism and protein synthesis.
  8. How is sodium regulated in the body?
    • Sodium levels are primarily regulated by aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands, which acts on the kidneys to control sodium reabsorption.
  9. What role does potassium play in metabolism?
    • Potassium is essential for maintaining fluid balance, nerve transmission, and muscle function.
  10. How does iron metabolism occur in the body?
    • Iron is absorbed in the duodenum and upper jejunum and is regulated by the hormone hepcidin, which controls its absorption and release from storage.
  11. What is the importance of zinc in metabolism?
    • Zinc is essential for enzyme function, immune system function, wound healing, and DNA synthesis.
  12. How does the body regulate copper levels?
    • Copper levels are regulated by a balance between absorption in the small intestine and excretion through bile.
  13. What are the consequences of calcium deficiency?
    • Calcium deficiency can lead to weakened bones (osteoporosis), muscle cramps, and impaired nerve function.
  14. How does the body maintain calcium homeostasis?
  15. What causes hypercalcemia?
    • Hypercalcemia can be caused by hyperparathyroidism, excessive vitamin D intake, certain cancers, or prolonged immobilization.
  16. How does the body respond to hypercalcemia?
    • The body responds to hypercalcemia by increasing renal excretion of calcium and inhibiting bone resorption.
  17. What are the effects of hypocalcemia?
    • Hypocalcemia can lead to muscle spasms, tetany, seizures, and cardiac arrhythmias.
  18. How is phosphorus deficiency treated?
    • Phosphorus deficiency is treated by increasing dietary intake through phosphorus-rich foods or supplements.
  19. What is the role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in mineral metabolism?
    • PTH regulates calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood by increasing calcium reabsorption in the kidneys, promoting bone resorption, and enhancing vitamin D activation.
  20. How does vitamin D deficiency affect mineral metabolism?
  21. What is the significance of magnesium deficiency?
    • Magnesium deficiency can cause muscle weakness, tremors, cardiac arrhythmias, and seizures.
  22. How does aldosterone regulate sodium and potassium levels?
    • Aldosterone promotes sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys, helping to maintain electrolyte balance.
  23. What are the consequences of iron deficiency?
    • Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, fatigue, decreased immune function, and impaired cognitive function.
  24. How is copper deficiency diagnosed?
    • Copper deficiency is diagnosed through blood tests measuring copper levels and ceruloplasmin activity.
  25. What are the sources of zinc in the diet?

These questions cover various aspects of mineral metabolism and should provide a comprehensive understanding of the topic.



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