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Viva Question and Answers Related to Pituitary Gland

Here are 50 viva questions and answers related to the pituitary gland:

  1. What is the pituitary gland?
  1. What are the two main parts of the pituitary gland?
    • The anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) and the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis).
  1. What hormones does the anterior pituitary gland produce?
    • Growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL).
  1. What hormone does the posterior pituitary gland release?
    • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin) and oxytocin.
  1. What is the function of growth hormone (GH)?
    • GH stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration.
  1. What stimulates the release of growth hormone?
    • Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) from the hypothalamus.
  1. What is the function of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)?
    • ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to release cortisol and other steroid hormones.
  1. What triggers the release of ACTH?
    • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus.
  1. What does thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) do?
    • TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and release thyroid hormones (T3 and T4).
  1. What hormone inhibits the release of TSH?
    • Thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) in a negative feedback loop.
  1. What are the functions of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in females?
    • FSH stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles, and LH triggers ovulation and stimulates the production of estrogen and progesterone.
  1. What are the functions of FSH and LH in males?
    • FSH stimulates sperm production, and LH stimulates the production of testosterone in the testes.
  1. What is the role of prolactin (PRL)?
    • Prolactin stimulates milk production in the mammary glands after childbirth.
  1. What triggers the release of prolactin?
    • Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH) from the hypothalamus.
  1. What hormones are released from the posterior pituitary gland?
  1. What is the function of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?
    • ADH regulates water balance by increasing water reabsorption in the kidneys.
  1. What stimulates the release of ADH?
    • High plasma osmolality (increased concentration of solutes in the blood) and low blood volume.
  1. What is the role of oxytocin?
    • Oxytocin is involved in uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during breastfeeding.
  1. What are the causes of pituitary gland disorders?
    • Tumors, head trauma, infections, autoimmune conditions, and genetic factors.
  1. What is pituitary adenoma?
    • A pituitary adenoma is a noncancerous tumor of the pituitary gland that can cause hormonal imbalances.
  1. What are the symptoms of a pituitary adenoma?
    • Headaches, vision problems, hormonal imbalances (e.g., excessive GH or prolactin), and fatigue.
  1. How is a pituitary adenoma diagnosed?
  1. What is the treatment for a pituitary adenoma?
    • Treatment may include medication to control hormone levels, surgery to remove the tumor, or radiation therapy.
  1. What is pituitary dwarfism?
    • Pituitary dwarfism is a condition characterized by short stature due to insufficient growth hormone production during childhood.
  1. What causes pituitary dwarfism?
    • Genetic mutations, pituitary gland abnormalities, or damage to the pituitary gland.
  1. How is pituitary dwarfism treated?
    • Treatment involves hormone replacement therapy with synthetic growth hormone to promote growth.
  1. What is acromegaly?
    • Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive growth hormone production in adulthood, leading to enlarged bones and tissues.
  1. What are the symptoms of acromegaly?
    • Enlarged hands, feet, and facial features, joint pain, thickened skin, and organ enlargement.
  1. How is acromegaly diagnosed?
    • Through blood tests to measure hormone levels, imaging tests to assess pituitary gland size, and physical examination.
  1. What is the treatment for acromegaly?
    • Treatment may include surgery to remove the pituitary tumor, medication to lower growth hormone levels, or radiation therapy.
  1. What is diabetes insipidus?
  1. What are the types of diabetes insipidus?
    • Central diabetes insipidus (due to insufficient ADH production) and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (due to kidney insensitivity to ADH).
  1. How is diabetes insipidus diagnosed?
    • Through urine tests to measure urine concentration, blood tests for electrolyte levels, and water deprivation tests.
  1. What is the treatment for diabetes insipidus?
    • Treatment may include hormone replacement therapy with desmopressin (a synthetic form of ADH) and addressing underlying causes.
  1. What is Sheehan syndrome?
    • Sheehan syndrome is a condition caused by pituitary gland damage due to severe postpartum bleeding, leading to hormone deficiencies.
  1. What are the symptoms of Sheehan syndrome?
    • Fatigue, low blood pressure, lactation failure, menstrual irregularities, and thyroid dysfunction.
  1. How is Sheehan syndrome diagnosed?
    • Through blood tests to measure hormone levels (e.g., cortisol, thyroid hormones), imaging tests to assess pituitary gland size, and medical history.
  1. What is the treatment for Sheehan syndrome?
    • Treatment involves hormone replacement therapy to address deficiencies in cortisol, thyroid hormones, and other hormones as needed.
  1. What is the role of the pituitary gland in the stress response?
    • The pituitary gland releases ACTH in response to stress, which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol (the stress hormone).
  1. How does the pituitary gland regulate the thyroid gland?
  1. What is the relationship between the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus?
    • The hypothalamus produces releasing and inhibiting hormones that regulate the pituitary gland’s hormone secretion.
  1. How does the pituitary gland contribute to the reproductive system?
    • The pituitary gland produces FSH and LH, which are essential for the development of reproductive organs and regulation of reproductive functions.
  1. What is the role of prolactin in lactation?
    • Prolactin stimulates milk production in the mammary glands during breastfeeding.
  1. How does the pituitary gland influence water balance in the body?
    • The pituitary gland releases ADH, which regulates water reabsorption in the kidneys, helping maintain water balance.
  1. What is the function of oxytocin during childbirth?
  1. How does the pituitary gland affect bone growth?
    • Growth hormone (GH) released by the pituitary gland stimulates bone growth and regeneration.
  1. What is the role of the pituitary gland in metabolism?
    • The pituitary gland regulates metabolism through hormones such as GH, TSH, and ACTH, which affect energy expenditure and nutrient utilization.
  1. How does the pituitary gland respond to feedback mechanisms?
    • The pituitary gland adjusts hormone secretion based on feedback from target organs and hormones in the bloodstream to maintain homeostasis.
  1. What are some disorders associated with pituitary gland dysfunction?
    • Pituitary adenomas, acromegaly, Cushing’s disease, diabetes insipidus, and Sheehan syndrome, among others.
  1. How does aging affect pituitary gland function?

These questions cover various aspects of the pituitary gland, including its anatomy, hormone production, functions, disorders, and clinical significance.

 

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