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Viva Question and Answers Related to Protein Metabolism

Here are 25 viva questions and answers related to protein metabolism:

  1. What is the primary function of proteins in the body?
    • Answer: Proteins serve various functions, including structural support, enzyme catalysis, transportation, immune defense, and cell signaling.
  1. What is the basic structural unit of a protein?
    • Answer: Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
  1. Explain the process of protein synthesis.
  1. What is the significance of tRNA in protein synthesis?
    • Answer: Transfer RNA (tRNA) carries amino acids to the ribosome during translation, ensuring the correct sequence of amino acids in the growing polypeptide chain.
  1. Describe the role of ribosomes in protein synthesis.
    • Answer: Ribosomes are cellular structures where protein synthesis occurs. They read the mRNA and facilitate the assembly of amino acids into a polypeptide chain.
  1. What is the difference between transcription and translation in protein synthesis?
    • Answer: Transcription occurs in the nucleus and involves the synthesis of mRNA from DNA. Translation occurs in the cytoplasm and involves the synthesis of a polypeptide chain from mRNA.
  1. Explain the concept of the genetic code.
    • Answer: The genetic code is a set of rules that determines the correspondence between nucleotide triplets (codons) in mRNA and specific amino acids during protein synthesis.
  1. How is protein structure related to its function?
  1. What is the significance of post-translational modifications in proteins?
    • Answer: Post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation or glycosylation, can alter the structure and function of proteins, affecting their activity, stability, and localization.
  1. Explain the terms ‘catabolism’ and ‘anabolism’ in the context of protein metabolism.
    • Answer: Catabolism refers to the breakdown of proteins into amino acids for energy production. Anabolism involves the synthesis of proteins from amino acids.
  1. What is the fate of amino groups removed during deamination of amino acids?
    • Answer: The amino groups are converted to ammonia (NH3) and then converted into urea in the liver, which is excreted in urine.
  1. Describe the process of gluconeogenesis and its connection to protein metabolism.
    • Answer: Gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors. Amino acids from protein degradation can be converted into glucose through this process.
  1. What is the role of the liver in protein metabolism?
    • Answer: The liver is crucial in protein metabolism as it synthesizes many plasma proteins, converts ammonia to urea, and is involved in gluconeogenesis from amino acids.
  1. Explain the significance of the nitrogen balance in protein metabolism.
    • Answer: Nitrogen balance is the difference between nitrogen intake and nitrogen excretion. Positive nitrogen balance indicates an anabolic state, while negative balance suggests catabolism or protein loss.
  1. How are essential amino acids different from non-essential amino acids?
  1. What is the role of proteases in protein metabolism?
    • Answer: Proteases are enzymes that break down proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids during digestion and cellular processes.
  1. Explain the significance of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in protein metabolism.
    • Answer: The TCA cycle is involved in the oxidative catabolism of amino acids, generating energy in the form of ATP and producing intermediates for biosynthesis.
  1. How does the body regulate protein synthesis and degradation?
    • Answer: Protein synthesis and degradation are regulated by various factors, including hormones (such as insulin and cortisol), cellular signaling pathways, and nutritional status.
  1. What is the importance of the mTOR pathway in protein metabolism?
    • Answer: The mTOR pathway regulates cell growth, including protein synthesis, in response to nutrient availability, growth factors, and cellular energy status.
  1. Explain the concept of protein turnover.
  1. How does the body handle excess amino acids?
    • Answer: Excess amino acids can be converted to energy, stored as fat, or converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis.
  1. Discuss the role of amino acids as precursors for neurotransmitters.
    • Answer: Amino acids, particularly tryptophan and tyrosine, serve as precursors for neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, playing a role in brain function and mood regulation.
  1. What is the significance of protein folding in cellular processes?
    • Answer: Proper protein folding is essential for functional proteins. Misfolded proteins can lead to diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
  1. How does the body adapt to a low-protein diet?
    • Answer: In a low-protein diet, the body may increase protein recycling, decrease protein synthesis, and prioritize essential functions to conserve amino acids.
  1. Explain the concept of protein phosphorylation and its role in cellular signaling.
    • Answer: Protein phosphorylation involves adding phosphate groups to proteins, regulating their activity. It plays a crucial role in cellular signaling pathways, including those related to growth and metabolism. Viva Questions and Answers Related to Cementum

 

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