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 Viva Question and Answers Related to Renal System


  1. What is the primary function of the renal system?
    • The renal system is responsible for filtering blood, removing waste products, and maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in the body.
  2. What are the two main components of the renal system?
    • The kidneys and the urinary tract (ureters, bladder, and urethra).
  3. Describe the location of the kidneys in the human body.
    • The kidneys are bean-shaped organs located on either side of the spine, just below the ribcage.
  4. What is the functional unit of the kidney?
    • The nephron.
  5. Explain the process of urine formation in the nephron.
    • Filtration, reabsorption, and secretion occur in the nephron to produce urine. Filtration separates waste products from blood, reabsorption reclaims useful substances, and secretion adds additional substances to the urine.
  6. What is glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
    • GFR is the rate at which the glomerulus filters blood, indicating kidney function.
  7. How is GFR regulated in the body?
    • It is regulated by adjusting the diameter of the afferent and efferent arterioles.
  8. What hormone regulates water reabsorption in the kidneys?
  9. What is the role of aldosterone in the renal system?
    • Aldosterone regulates sodium and potassium balance by increasing sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion.
  10. What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
    • It regulates blood pressure and filtration rate by releasing renin.
  11. Define renal clearance.
    • Renal clearance is the volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed by the kidneys per unit time.
  12. Explain the role of the loop of Henle in the nephron.
    • The loop of Henle concentrates urine by creating a hypertonic medullary interstitium.
  13. What is the purpose of the ureters?
    • The ureters transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
  14. Describe the function of the urinary bladder.
    • The urinary bladder stores urine until it is voluntarily released during micturition.
  15. What is the normal pH range of urine?
    • The normal pH range is around 4.6 to 8.0.
  16. How does the body regulate acid-base balance through the kidneys?
    • The kidneys excrete hydrogen ions and reabsorb bicarbonate ions to maintain pH balance.
  17. What is the significance of the renal threshold?
    • The renal threshold is the plasma concentration at which a specific substance starts appearing in the urine, indicating its saturation point.
  18. Explain the concept of autoregulation in renal blood flow.
    • Autoregulation refers to the ability of the kidneys to maintain a relatively constant blood flow despite changes in systemic blood pressure.
  19. What is the role of the macula densa in the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
    • The macula densa monitors the concentration of sodium chloride in the filtrate, regulating renin release.
  20. What is acute kidney injury (AKI)?
    • AKI is a sudden and often reversible decline in kidney function.
  21. Differentiate between acute and chronic renal failure.
  22. How is chronic kidney disease (CKD) staged?
    • CKD is staged based on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), ranging from Stage 1 to Stage 5.
  23. Explain the role of the glomerulus in the nephron.
    • The glomerulus filters blood to form a fluid called glomerular filtrate, which is the starting point for urine formation.
  24. What is the significance of the countercurrent multiplication system in the nephron?
    • It helps in the concentration of urine by creating an osmotic gradient in the renal medulla.
  25. How does the body respond to dehydration in terms of renal function?
    • ADH secretion increases, leading to increased water reabsorption and concentrated urine production.
  26. Define renal calculi.
    • Renal calculi are kidney stones, which are solid masses formed in the kidneys from crystals.
  27. What is the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in blood pressure regulation?
    • It regulates blood pressure by controlling blood volume and systemic vascular resistance.
  28. Explain the concept of obligatory water reabsorption.
    • It refers to the minimum amount of water that must be reabsorbed by the kidneys to excrete solutes and maintain osmotic balance.
  29. What is the function of the podocytes in the glomerulus?
    • Podocytes form the filtration slits and contribute to the selective permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier.
  30. How does diabetes mellitus affect the renal system?
    • Diabetes mellitus can lead to diabetic nephropathy, a condition causing kidney damage due to chronic high blood sugar levels.
  31. Describe the role of the afferent and efferent arterioles in renal blood flow regulation.
  32. What is the significance of the Bowman’s capsule in the nephron?
    • The Bowman’s capsule surrounds the glomerulus and collects the glomerular filtrate.
  33. Explain the concept of osmoregulation in the kidneys.
    • Osmoregulation is the regulation of water and solute balance to maintain proper osmotic concentration in body fluids.
  34. How does hypertension impact the renal system?
    • Hypertension can damage renal blood vessels, leading to kidney dysfunction and an increased risk of chronic kidney disease.
  35. What is the role of prostaglandins in renal physiology?
    • Prostaglandins help regulate blood flow and glomerular filtration rate by dilating the afferent arteriole.
  36. How does the body respond to an increase in blood pressure in terms of renal function?
    • The afferent arteriole constricts, and the juxtaglomerular cells release less renin, leading to decreased blood pressure.
  37. Explain the concept of renal plasma clearance.
  38. What is the role of the collecting duct in urine concentration?
    • The collecting duct reabsorbs water, concentrating urine by responding to the concentration of ADH.
  39. What is the clinical significance of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels?
    • Elevated BUN levels may indicate kidney dysfunction, dehydration, or other conditions affecting nitrogen metabolism.
  40. How does the body regulate potassium levels through the kidneys?
    • Aldosterone enhances potassium excretion by increasing its secretion in the distal tubules and collecting ducts.
  41. Define polycystic kidney disease (PKD).
  42. What is the role of the vasa recta in the renal medulla?
    • The vasa recta is a network of blood vessels that maintains the osmotic gradient in the renal medulla, crucial for urine concentration.
  43. Explain the concept of tubuloglomerular feedback.
    • Tubuloglomerular feedback is a mechanism where the macula densa regulates GFR by influencing the diameter of the afferent arteriole.
  44. How does aging affect renal function?
    • Aging is associated with a gradual decline in renal function, including decreased GFR and changes in renal blood flow.
  45. What is the role of the renorenal reflex in blood pressure regulation?
    • The renorenal reflex involves a feedback loop between the kidneys and the cardiovascular system to regulate blood pressure.
  46. Define nephrotic syndrome.
    • Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder characterized by the excretion of large amounts of protein in the urine due to increased glomerular permeability.
  47. Explain the role of the peritubular capillaries in the renal system.
    • Peritubular capillaries reabsorb substances from the renal tubules, contributing to the reabsorption of water and solutes.
  48. How does the sympathetic nervous system influence renal function?
    • Sympathetic stimulation can cause vasoconstriction of renal blood vessels, reducing renal blood flow and decreasing urine production.
  49. What is the significance of the renal cortex and medulla in kidney structure?
    • The renal cortex contains the renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules, while the renal medulla contains the loop of Henle and collecting ducts.
  50. Explain the concept of renal autoregulation.
    • Renal autoregulation is the ability of the kidneys to maintain a relatively constant blood flow and glomerular filtration rate despite changes in systemic blood pressure. Viva Question and Answers in Scalp and Face



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