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Viva Question and Answers Related to Respiratory Drugs in Pharmacology

Here are 50 viva questions and answers related to respiratory drugs in pharmacology:

  1. What is the mechanism of action of beta-2 adrenergic agonists?
    • Answer: Beta-2 adrenergic agonists stimulate adenylate cyclase, leading to increased cAMP levels, which relaxes bronchial smooth muscles.
  2. Name a short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist used for acute asthma attacks.
    • Answer: Albuterol (Salbutamol).
  3. What is the role of corticosteroids in the treatment of respiratory disorders?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory effects and reduce airway inflammation in respiratory disorders.
  4. Which drug class is commonly used as the first-line treatment for chronic asthma?
    • Answer: Inhaled corticosteroids.
  5. What is the purpose of using leukotriene receptor antagonists in asthma therapy?
    • Answer: Leukotriene receptor antagonists block the action of leukotrienes, reducing bronchoconstriction and inflammation.
  6. Name a long-acting muscarinic antagonist used in the management of COPD.
    • Answer: Tiotropium.
  7. How do anticholinergic drugs work in respiratory conditions?
    • Answer: Anticholinergic drugs block the action of acetylcholine, leading to bronchodilation.
  8. What is the main concern with the use of systemic corticosteroids in respiratory disorders?
    • Answer: Systemic corticosteroids can cause systemic side effects, including immunosuppression and metabolic effects.
  9. What is the role of theophylline in the treatment of respiratory diseases?
    • Answer: Theophylline is a bronchodilator that works by inhibiting phosphodiesterase, leading to increased cAMP levels.
  10. Which class of drugs is used to treat pulmonary hypertension?
    • Answer: Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (e.g., sildenafil).
  11. What is the purpose of using mucolytic agents in respiratory conditions?
    • Answer: Mucolytic agents thin mucus, making it easier to clear from the airways.
  12. Name a mast cell stabilizer used in the management of asthma.
    • Answer: Cromolyn.
  13. How do long-acting beta-2 agonists differ from short-acting ones in terms of usage?
    • Answer: Long-acting beta-2 agonists are used for maintenance therapy in asthma and COPD, providing prolonged bronchodilation.
  14. What is the primary mechanism of action of inhaled anticholinergic drugs?
    • Answer: Inhaled anticholinergics block muscarinic receptors in the airways, leading to bronchodilation.
  15. What is the primary indication for the use of monoclonal antibodies in asthma treatment?
    • Answer: Monoclonal antibodies are used in severe asthma with eosinophilic inflammation.
  16. Name a common side effect of inhaled corticosteroids.
    • Answer: Oropharyngeal candidiasis (thrush).
  17. How do leukotriene modifiers differ from inhaled corticosteroids in their mechanism of action?
    • Answer: Leukotriene modifiers block the action of leukotrienes, while inhaled corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory effects.
  18. What is the role of beta-blockers in the management of respiratory conditions?
    • Answer: Beta-blockers are contraindicated in asthma as they can exacerbate bronchoconstriction.
  19. Name a combination product containing an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting beta-2 agonist.
    • Answer: Fluticasone/salmeterol.
  20. How do mast cell stabilizers prevent asthma symptoms?
  21. What is the primary action of xanthine derivatives like theophylline?
    • Answer: Xanthine derivatives act as bronchodilators by inhibiting phosphodiesterase and increasing cAMP levels.
  22. Why is proper inhaler technique important in the use of respiratory medications?
    • Answer: Proper inhaler technique ensures effective drug delivery to the lungs, improving the therapeutic effect.
  23. Name a selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor used in the management of COPD.
    • Answer: Roflumilast.
  24. What is the role of alpha-1 antitrypsin in the pathophysiology of COPD?
    • Answer: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency can lead to emphysema due to uncontrolled protease activity.
  25. How do corticosteroids reduce airway inflammation in asthma?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines and reduce the migration of inflammatory cells.
  26. Name a combination product containing a long-acting beta-2 agonist and an inhaled corticosteroid.
    • Answer: Budesonide/formoterol.
  27. What is the primary benefit of using nebulized medications in respiratory therapy?
    • Answer: Nebulized medications provide a higher dose of the drug to the airways, especially in patients with difficulty using inhalers.
  28. Why are beta-2 adrenergic agonists preferred over beta-1 agonists in the treatment of respiratory conditions?
    • Answer: Beta-2 receptors are predominant in the bronchial smooth muscles, making beta-2 agonists more selective for bronchodilation.
  29. What is the main limitation of using theophylline in respiratory therapy?
    • Answer: Theophylline has a narrow therapeutic window, requiring close monitoring of blood levels to prevent toxicity.
  30. Name a leukotriene receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.
    • Answer: Montelukast.
  31. What is the role of nitric oxide in the pathophysiology of asthma?
    • Answer: Nitric oxide is involved in airway inflammation and smooth muscle relaxation in asthma.
  32. Why are inhaled corticosteroids preferred over systemic corticosteroids in asthma management?
    • Answer: Inhaled corticosteroids provide localized anti-inflammatory effects with fewer systemic side effects.
  33. Name a long-acting beta-2 agonist commonly used in the treatment of COPD.
    • Answer: Salmeterol.
  34. How do mucolytic agents like acetylcysteine work in respiratory conditions?
    • Answer: Mucolytic agents break down mucus by disrupting disulfide bonds in mucoproteins.
  35. What is the primary advantage of using spacer devices with inhalers?
    • Answer: Spacer devices improve drug delivery to the lungs and reduce the risk of oral candidiasis.
  36. Name a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
    • Answer: Sildenafil.
  37. What is the role of surfactant in respiratory function?
    • Answer: Surfactant reduces surface tension in the alveoli, preventing collapse and facilitating gas exchange.
  38. Why are corticosteroids not typically used as monotherapy in the treatment of acute asthma exacerbations?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids have a delayed onset of action, and combination therapy with bronchodilators is needed for acute relief.
  39. Name a mast cell stabilizer that can be used prophylactically before exposure to allergens.
    • Answer: Nedocromil.
  40. What is the primary adverse effect of long-term systemic corticosteroid use in respiratory conditions?
  41. How do antileukotriene drugs differ from beta-2 agonists in their mechanism of action?
    • Answer: Antileukotriene drugs block the action of leukotrienes, while beta-2 agonists stimulate beta-2 receptors for bronchodilation.
  42. Name a corticosteroid commonly used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.
    • Answer: Fluticasone.
  43. What is the mechanism of action of cromolyn in asthma management?
    • Answer: Cromolyn stabilizes mast cells, preventing the release of inflammatory mediators.
  44. Why is it important to titrate the dose of inhaled corticosteroids in asthma management?
    • Answer: Titrating the dose helps achieve optimal control of symptoms while minimizing the risk of side effects.
  45. Name a monoclonal antibody that targets IgE in the treatment of severe allergic asthma.
    • Answer: Omalizumab.
  46. How do long-acting muscarinic antagonists differ from short-acting ones in their duration of action?
    • Answer: Long-acting muscarinic antagonists provide sustained bronchodilation over an extended period compared to short-acting ones.
  47. What is the primary concern with the use of beta-blockers in patients with COPD?
    • Answer: Beta-blockers may exacerbate bronchoconstriction and should be used with caution.
  48. Name a drug that acts as a dual bronchodilator by combining a beta-2 agonist and a muscarinic antagonist.
    • Answer: Umeclidinium/vilanterol.
  49. What is the role of ciliary function in respiratory health?
    • Answer: Ciliary function helps move mucus and foreign particles out of the respiratory tract.
  50. Name a short-acting anticholinergic used for acute exacerbations in COPD.

viva question and answers in drugs for bronchial asthma

Here are viva questions and answers related to drugs for bronchial asthma:

  1. What is the primary goal of pharmacotherapy in the management of bronchial asthma?
    • Answer: The primary goal is to achieve and maintain optimal control of symptoms while minimizing the risk of exacerbations and side effects.
  2. Name three classes of drugs commonly used as bronchodilators in asthma management.
    • Answer: Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergics, and xanthine derivatives.
  3. How do short-acting beta-2 agonists differ from long-acting beta-2 agonists in their use for asthma?
    • Answer: Short-acting beta-2 agonists are used for quick relief during acute attacks, while long-acting beta-2 agonists are used for maintenance therapy.
  4. What is the mechanism of action of inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment of asthma?
    • Answer: Inhaled corticosteroids reduce airway inflammation by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines and decreasing the migration of inflammatory cells.
  5. Why are inhaled corticosteroids preferred over oral corticosteroids in asthma management?
    • Answer: Inhaled corticosteroids provide localized anti-inflammatory effects with fewer systemic side effects, minimizing the risk of systemic complications.
  6. Name a common side effect associated with the long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids.
    • Answer: Oropharyngeal candidiasis (thrush) is a common side effect.
  7. How do leukotriene receptor antagonists contribute to asthma management?
    • Answer: Leukotriene receptor antagonists block the action of leukotrienes, reducing bronchoconstriction and inflammation.
  8. What is the role of long-acting muscarinic antagonists in the treatment of asthma?
    • Answer: Long-acting muscarinic antagonists provide bronchodilation by blocking muscarinic receptors in the airways.
  9. Name a combination product containing both an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting beta-2 agonist.
    • Answer: Advair Diskus (fluticasone/salmeterol) is an example.
  10. Why are systemic beta-blockers contraindicated in patients with asthma?
    • Answer: Systemic beta-blockers can exacerbate bronchoconstriction by blocking beta-2 receptors in the airways.
  11. How does theophylline contribute to bronchodilation in asthma therapy?
    • Answer: Theophylline acts as a bronchodilator by inhibiting phosphodiesterase, leading to increased levels of cAMP.
  12. What is the primary role of mast cell stabilizers in asthma treatment?
  13. Name a monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma.
    • Answer: Mepolizumab is an example of a monoclonal antibody targeting eosinophils.
  14. How do biologics like omalizumab work in the treatment of allergic asthma?
    • Answer: Omalizumab binds to IgE, preventing its interaction with mast cells and basophils, thereby reducing allergic responses.
  15. Why is proper inhaler technique crucial in the administration of asthma medications?
    • Answer: Proper inhaler technique ensures optimal drug delivery to the lungs, improving the therapeutic effect and minimizing side effects.
  16. Name a short-acting anticholinergic used for acute exacerbations in asthma.
    • Answer: Ipratropium is a short-acting anticholinergic commonly used in asthma exacerbations.
  17. What is the role of cromolyn in asthma management?
    • Answer: Cromolyn stabilizes mast cells, preventing the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators.
  18. How do phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors contribute to the treatment of COPD associated with chronic bronchitis?
    • Answer: Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors like roflumilast reduce inflammation and improve lung function in patients with chronic bronchitis.
  19. Name a common side effect associated with the use of leukotriene receptor antagonists.
    • Answer: Headache is a common side effect of leukotriene receptor antagonists.
  20. What is the significance of monitoring peak flow in asthma management?
    • Answer: Monitoring peak flow helps assess the severity of airflow obstruction and aids in adjusting treatment plans accordingly.
  21. How do long-acting beta-2 agonists contribute to the management of nocturnal asthma symptoms?
    • Answer: Long-acting beta-2 agonists provide prolonged bronchodilation, helping to control symptoms, especially during the night.
  22. What is the role of rescue inhalers in asthma management?
    • Answer: Rescue inhalers, usually containing short-acting beta-2 agonists, provide quick relief during acute asthma exacerbations.
  23. Why are corticosteroids commonly used in the treatment of status asthmaticus?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids have potent anti-inflammatory effects and are crucial for rapidly reducing airway inflammation in severe asthma exacerbations.
  24. Name a long-acting anticholinergic used for maintenance therapy in COPD.
    • Answer: Tiotropium is a long-acting anticholinergic commonly used in COPD.
  25. What is the significance of titrating medication doses in asthma management?

Remember to tailor your responses based on the specific details and context of the question asked during the viva.

Here are some viva questions and answers related to sympathomimetic drugs:

  1. What is the primary mechanism of action of sympathomimetic drugs?
    • Answer: Sympathomimetics mimic the effects of the sympathetic nervous system by stimulating adrenergic receptors.
  2. Name the two main types of adrenergic receptors and their subtypes.
    • Answer: Alpha (α) receptors (α1 and α2) and Beta (β) receptors (β1, β2, and β3).
  3. How do alpha-1 adrenergic receptors differ from alpha-2 receptors in their effects?
    • Answer: Stimulation of alpha-1 receptors leads to vasoconstriction, while stimulation of alpha-2 receptors inhibits the release of norepinephrine.
  4. Give an example of a sympathomimetic drug that selectively stimulates alpha-1 receptors.
    • Answer:
  5. What is the therapeutic significance of alpha-2 receptor agonists?
    • Answer: Alpha-2 agonists are used to decrease sympathetic outflow, leading to reduced norepinephrine release and lowering blood pressure.
  6. How does the activation of beta-1 receptors differ from beta-2 receptors?
    • Answer: Beta-1 receptors are primarily located in the heart, and their stimulation increases heart rate and contractility, while beta-2 receptor stimulation causes bronchodilation and vasodilation.
  7. Name a non-selective beta-adrenergic agonist.
    • Answer:
  8. What is the significance of beta-2 receptor selectivity in bronchodilator drugs?
    • Answer: Beta-2 receptor selectivity is crucial for bronchodilator drugs as it allows relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles, relieving symptoms of bronchoconstriction.
  9. Give an example of a non-selective beta-blocker.
    • Answer:
  10. How does the activation of beta-3 receptors differ from beta-1 and beta-2 receptors?
    • Answer: Beta-3 receptors are primarily found in adipose tissue, and their stimulation leads to lipolysis and thermogenesis.
  11. Name a sympathomimetic drug commonly used in the treatment of anaphylaxis.
    • Answer:
  12. What is the role of beta-2 receptor stimulation in the management of asthma?
    • Answer: Beta-2 receptor stimulation causes bronchodilation, making it a key therapeutic target in asthma management.
  13. Give an example of a selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator.
    • Answer: Albuterol (Salbutamol).
  14. How do indirect-acting sympathomimetic drugs differ from direct-acting ones?
    • Answer: Indirect-acting sympathomimetics increase the release of norepinephrine, while direct-acting ones directly stimulate adrenergic receptors.
  15. Name a drug that inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine, leading to increased sympathetic activity.
    • Answer:
  16. What is the significance of the inactivation of catecholamines by monoamine oxidase (MAO)?
    • Answer: MAO inactivates catecholamines, preventing prolonged stimulation of adrenergic receptors and regulating sympathetic activity.
  17. How does the use of sympathomimetic drugs impact blood pressure?
    • Answer: Sympathomimetics can increase blood pressure by causing vasoconstriction through stimulation of alpha receptors.
  18. Name a sympathomimetic drug that is commonly used as a nasal decongestant.
    • Answer:
  19. What is the rationale for combining a beta-2 agonist with a corticosteroid in asthma inhalers?
    • Answer: Combining a beta-2 agonist with a corticosteroid provides both bronchodilation and anti-inflammatory effects for better asthma control.
  20. How do sympathomimetic drugs contribute to the management of shock?
    • Answer: Sympathomimetics can increase cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance, helping to restore blood pressure in shock.
  21. What is the primary concern with the prolonged use of decongestant nasal sprays containing sympathomimetics?
    • Answer: Prolonged use can lead to rebound congestion, where nasal symptoms worsen upon discontinuation.
  22. Name a sympathomimetic drug that is commonly used as a vasoconstrictor in local anesthesia.
    • Answer: Epinephrine is often added to local anesthetics to prolong their duration and reduce systemic absorption.
  23. How does the route of administration impact the onset and duration of action of sympathomimetic drugs?
  24. What is the role of alpha-1 receptor stimulation in the treatment of hypotension?
    • Answer: Alpha-1 receptor stimulation causes vasoconstriction, which can raise blood pressure in cases of hypotension.
  25. Name a sympathomimetic drug used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
    • Answer: Methylphenidate is a stimulant commonly used in the treatment of ADHD.
  26. How does the cardiovascular response to epinephrine differ from norepinephrine?
    • Answer: Epinephrine stimulates both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors, leading to increased heart rate and vasodilation, while norepinephrine primarily stimulates alpha receptors, causing vasoconstriction.
  27. Name a sympathomimetic drug that is commonly used in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma.
    • Answer: Epinephrine eye drops can reduce intraocular pressure by promoting fluid drainage.
  28. What is the significance of the beta-1 to beta-2 selectivity ratio in beta-blockers?
    • Answer: A higher beta-1 to beta-2 selectivity ratio is desirable to avoid unwanted bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma or COPD.
  29. How do sympathomimetics contribute to the management of cardiac arrest?
    • Answer: Epinephrine is commonly used in cardiac arrest to stimulate both the heart (beta-1 receptors) and peripheral vessels (alpha-1 receptors).
  30. Name a drug that acts as a mixed alpha and beta receptor agonist, often used for nasal congestion.
    • Answer: Ephedrine is an example of a mixed alpha and beta agonist.

Remember to provide concise and accurate answers during a viva, and be prepared to elaborate on any points if further clarification is requested.

viva question and answers related to Pharmacodynamics

Viva question and answers in Corticosteroids!

Here are some viva questions and answers related to corticosteroids:

  1. What is the primary mechanism of action of corticosteroids?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids exert their effects by entering cells and binding to glucocorticoid receptors, influencing gene transcription and protein synthesis.
  2. Differentiate between glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.
    • Answer: Glucocorticoids primarily regulate glucose metabolism and have anti-inflammatory effects, while mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone, regulate electrolyte and water balance.
  3. What is the significance of the anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids?
    • Answer: The anti-inflammatory actions help suppress the immune response, reducing inflammation and preventing damage in various conditions.
  4. How do corticosteroids affect the immune system?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids suppress the immune system by inhibiting the production and function of various immune cells, including lymphocytes and macrophages.
  5. Name a commonly used synthetic corticosteroid.
    • Answer: Prednisone is a commonly used synthetic corticosteroid.
  6. What is the rationale for using inhaled corticosteroids in asthma management?
    • Answer: Inhaled corticosteroids provide localized anti-inflammatory effects in the airways, reducing bronchial inflammation and improving asthma control.
  7. How do corticosteroids impact the release of inflammatory mediators?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, by suppressing the activity of phospholipase A2.
  8. What is the role of corticosteroids in the treatment of autoimmune diseases?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids are used to suppress the immune response and reduce inflammation in autoimmune diseases by inhibiting immune cell activity.
  9. Name a common side effect associated with the long-term use of systemic corticosteroids.
    • Answer: Osteoporosis is a common side effect due to the impact of corticosteroids on bone density.
  10. Why are corticosteroids used in combination with beta-2 agonists in the treatment of asthma?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids and beta-2 agonists have complementary effects; corticosteroids provide anti-inflammatory actions, while beta-2 agonists offer bronchodilation.
  11. What is the difference between the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid activities of corticosteroids?
    • Answer: The glucocorticoid activity is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects, while mineralocorticoid activity affects water and electrolyte balance.
  12. Name a topical corticosteroid commonly used for skin conditions.
    • Answer: Hydrocortisone is a commonly used topical corticosteroid.
  13. How do corticosteroids contribute to the treatment of allergic reactions?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids reduce the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators, helping to alleviate symptoms of allergic reactions.
  14. What is the role of corticosteroids in the management of rheumatoid arthritis?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids are used to control inflammation and manage symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis by suppressing the immune response.
  15. How does the timing of corticosteroid administration impact their effectiveness in asthma exacerbations?
    • Answer: Early administration of corticosteroids in asthma exacerbations helps reduce inflammation and improve outcomes.
  16. Why is it important to taper the dose of corticosteroids gradually when discontinuing long-term therapy?
  17. Name a corticosteroid commonly used in the treatment of nasal congestion.
    • Answer: Fluticasone is commonly used as a nasal corticosteroid for congestion associated with allergic rhinitis.
  18. What is the purpose of using topical corticosteroids in dermatological conditions?
    • Answer: Topical corticosteroids are used to reduce inflammation, itching, and redness in various skin conditions.
  19. How do corticosteroids affect the metabolism of carbohydrates?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids increase blood glucose levels by promoting gluconeogenesis and reducing glucose uptake by cells.
  20. Name a corticosteroid with potent mineralocorticoid activity.
    • Answer: Fludrocortisone is a corticosteroid with potent mineralocorticoid activity.
  21. What is the role of corticosteroids in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids are used in COPD to reduce inflammation in the airways, especially in patients with frequent exacerbations.
  22. How do corticosteroids affect the synthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids inhibit the synthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
  23. Name a corticosteroid commonly used in the treatment of autoimmune skin conditions like psoriasis.
    • Answer: Betamethasone is commonly used topically or as an injection in the treatment of psoriasis.
  24. What is the role of corticosteroids in organ transplantation?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids are used to suppress the immune response and prevent graft rejection in organ transplantation.
  25. How does the potency of different corticosteroids vary?
    • Answer: Potency varies based on the drug’s affinity for glucocorticoid receptors; some corticosteroids are more potent than others.
  26. What is the rationale for using corticosteroids in the treatment of shock?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids may be used to stabilize blood pressure in shock by reducing inflammation and improving vascular tone.
  27. What is the role of corticosteroids in the management of multiple sclerosis?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids are used to reduce inflammation during acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis, speeding up recovery.
  28. How do corticosteroids contribute to the management of cancer?
    • Answer: Corticosteroids are often used to manage symptoms and reduce inflammation in cancer patients, especially those with brain tumors.
  29. Name a corticosteroid that is commonly used as an intra-articular injection in joint disorders.
    • Answer: Triamcinolone is commonly used for intra-articular injections in joint disorders.
  30. What is the primary adverse effect associated with long-term systemic corticosteroid use?

Remember to provide clear and concise answers during a viva, and be prepared to elaborate on any points if further clarification is requested.

 

 

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