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Viva Question and Answers Related to Virology

Here are 50 viva questions and answers related to virology:

  1. Q: What is a virus? A: A virus is a small infectious agent that requires a host cell to replicate and reproduce.
  2. Q: What is the basic structure of a virus? A: A virus typically consists of genetic material (either DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid.
  3. Q: How do viruses differ from bacteria? A: Viruses are much smaller than bacteria and can only replicate within a host cell, whereas bacteria are single-celled organisms.
  4. Q: Name two types of genetic material found in viruses. A: DNA and RNA.
  5. Q: What is a bacteriophage? A: A bacteriophage is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria.
  6. Q: Define viral replication. A: Viral replication is the process by which a virus makes copies of itself within a host cell.
  7. Q: How do enveloped viruses differ from non-enveloped viruses? A: Enveloped viruses have an additional lipid membrane surrounding their capsid, while non-enveloped viruses lack this membrane.
  8. Q: Name a retrovirus. A: HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is an example of a retrovirus.
  9. Q: What is the role of reverse transcriptase in retroviruses? A: Reverse transcriptase converts viral RNA into DNA, which can then be integrated into the host cell’s genome.
  10. Q: Explain the lytic cycle in viral replication. A: The lytic cycle involves the rapid replication of viruses within a host cell, leading to cell lysis and the release of new virions. Viva Question and Answers in Lipid Metabolism
  11. Q: What is the latent phase in viral infections? A: The latent phase is a period during which the virus is present but not actively replicating.
  12. Q: Name a latent virus in humans. A: Herpesviruses, such as the herpes simplex virus, can establish latency in human cells.
  13. Q: Define antigenic drift. A: Antigenic drift refers to small, gradual changes in viral antigens over time, leading to the evolution of the virus.
  14. Q: What is antigenic shift? A: Antigenic shift is a sudden and major change in the viral antigens, often resulting in the emergence of a new strain.
  15. Q: Explain the concept of viral tropism. A: Viral tropism refers to the specific types of cells or tissues that a virus can infect.
  16. Q: How do vaccines work against viral infections? A: Vaccines stimulate the immune system to produce an immune response against specific viral antigens, providing protection against future infections.
  17. Q: Name a live attenuated vaccine. A: The measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine is an example of a live attenuated vaccine.
  18. Q: What is the principle behind inactivated vaccines? A: Inactivated vaccines contain killed viruses or viral particles, which cannot cause disease but can still stimulate an immune response.
  19. Q: Define herd immunity. A: Herd immunity occurs when a significant proportion of the population is immune to a disease, reducing its spread within the community.
  20. Q: What is the significance of the viral envelope? A: The viral envelope is essential for the virus to enter and exit host cells, facilitating infection.
  21. Q: How do interferons contribute to the antiviral defense mechanism? A: Interferons are proteins that interfere with viral replication and spread, activating the immune response to control viral infections.
  22. Q: Explain the concept of virotherapy. A: Virotherapy involves using viruses to treat diseases, including cancer, by selectively infecting and destroying target cells.
  23. Q: What is the role of neuraminidase in influenza viruses? A: Neuraminidase is an enzyme that helps influenza viruses release from infected cells and spread within the respiratory tract.
  24. Q: Differentiate between endemic, epidemic, and pandemic. A: Endemic refers to the constant presence of a disease in a specific area, epidemic is the occurrence of a disease in a population greater than what is normally expected, and pandemic is a global epidemic.
  25. Q: Name a zoonotic virus. A: The Hantavirus, which can be transmitted from rodents to humans, is an example of a zoonotic virus.
  26. Q: What is the role of the viral spike protein? A: The spike protein allows viruses to attach to host cells and facilitates entry into the cells.
  27. Q: Explain the concept of quasispecies in virology. A: Quasispecies refers to the diverse population of closely related viral variants that exist within an infected individual.
  28. Q: How do retroviruses integrate their genetic material into the host genome? A: Retroviruses use the enzyme integrase to integrate their viral DNA into the host cell’s genome. Viva Question and Answers in Lipid Metabolism
  29. Q: Name a DNA virus that can cause cancer. A: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus associated with the development of cervical and other cancers.
  30. Q: What is the difference between a pandemic and an epidemic? A: A pandemic is a global outbreak of a disease, whereas an epidemic is a widespread outbreak within a specific region or community.
  31. Q: Define viral capsid. A: A viral capsid is the protein coat that surrounds the genetic material of a virus.
  32. Q: Name a class of antiviral drugs. A: Protease inhibitors, such as those used in the treatment of HIV, are a class of antiviral drugs.
  33. Q: How do viruses evolve? A: Viruses evolve through genetic mutations and recombination, leading to the emergence of new strains.
  34. Q: What is the role of the provirus in retroviral infections? A: The provirus is the integrated viral DNA in the host genome, allowing the virus to persist in the host cell.
  35. Q: How do interferons inhibit viral replication? A: Interferons induce the expression of antiviral proteins, which interfere with various stages of viral replication.
  36. Q: Name a respiratory syncytial virus. A: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a common virus that causes respiratory infections, especially in young children. Viva Question and Answers Related to Carbohydrate Metabolism
  37. Q: What is the difference between horizontal and vertical transmission of viruses? A: Horizontal transmission occurs between individuals of the same generation, while vertical transmission is from parent to offspring.
  38. Q: Explain the concept of reverse genetics in virology. A: Reverse genetics involves manipulating the viral genome to study the effects on virus replication and pathogenesis.
  39. Q: Name a persistent viral infection. A: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can establish a persistent infection in the liver.
  40. Q: What is the role of the host cell receptor in viral entry? A: The host cell receptor is a protein on the cell surface that the virus binds to, facilitating entry into the host cell.
  41. Q: How do RNA viruses replicate their genetic material? A: RNA viruses use RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to replicate their RNA genome.
  42. Q: Name a common cold virus. A: Rhinovirus is a common virus that causes the majority of colds.
  43. Q: Explain the process of viral budding. A: Viral budding is the process by which enveloped viruses acquire their lipid envelope and exit the host cell.  Viva Questions and Answers Related to Bacteriology
  44. Q: What is the role of the capsid in protecting the viral genome? A: The capsid provides protection to the viral genome, preventing its degradation and facilitating the virus’s entry into host cells.
  45. Q: Name a DNA virus that causes a rash. A: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and shingles, both of which involve a characteristic rash.
  46. Q: Define viroplasm. A: Viroplasm is a region within infected cells where viral replication and assembly take place.
  47. Q: Name a DNA virus associated with cancer in animals. A: Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a DNA virus that can cause leukemia in cats.
  48. Q: What is the role of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in virology? A: PCR is a technique used to amplify and detect viral nucleic acids, aiding in the diagnosis of viral infections.
  49. Q: Explain the concept of hemagglutination. A: Hemagglutination is the clumping of red blood cells, often used as a diagnostic test for certain viruses.
  50. Q: Name a retrovirus that primarily infects birds. A: Avian leukosis virus is an example of a retrovirus that primarily infects birds.

These questions cover a range of topics in virology, from basic virological concepts to specific viruses, their replication mechanisms, and their interactions with the host.


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