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Viva Questions and Answers Related to Antihypertensive Drugs

Here are 30 potential viva questions and answers related to antihypertensive drugs:

  1. What is hypertension?
    • Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a condition where the force of blood against the walls of the arteries is consistently too high.
  2. Why is it important to treat hypertension?
    • Untreated hypertension can lead to serious health issues such as heart disease, stroke, and kidney damage.
  3. Name a few classes of antihypertensive drugs.
    • ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, and alpha-blockers.
  4. How do ACE inhibitors work in treating hypertension?
    • ACE inhibitors block the angiotensin-converting enzyme, reducing the production of angiotensin II and leading to vasodilation.
  5. What are some common side effects of ACE inhibitors?
  6. How do beta-blockers work in controlling blood pressure?
    • Beta-blockers reduce heart rate and the force of heart contractions by blocking the effects of adrenaline.
  7. Name a non-selective beta-blocker and its uses.
    • Propranolol; used for hypertension, angina, and migraines.
  8. How do calcium channel blockers lower blood pressure?
    • Calcium channel blockers relax blood vessels by blocking the entry of calcium into the muscle cells of the heart and arteries.
  9. Give an example of a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker.
    • Amlodipine
  10. What is the role of thiazide diuretics in hypertension treatment?
    • Thiazide diuretics increase the excretion of sodium and water, reducing blood volume and lowering blood pressure.
  11. Name a commonly used thiazide diuretic.
  12. How do angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) differ from ACE inhibitors?
    • ARBs block the action of angiotensin II directly at the receptor level, while ACE inhibitors inhibit the production of angiotensin II.
  13. What is the significance of combining antihypertensive medications from different classes?
    • Combination therapy can provide synergistic effects, targeting multiple pathways to better control blood pressure.
  14. What is the concept of first-line and second-line antihypertensive drugs?
    • First-line drugs are typically recommended as initial treatment, while second-line drugs are considered if first-line options are ineffective or cause adverse effects.
  15. How does lifestyle modification complement antihypertensive drug therapy?
    • Lifestyle modifications, such as diet and exercise, can enhance the effectiveness of antihypertensive drugs and improve overall cardiovascular health.
  16. What is the role of renin in blood pressure regulation?
    • Renin is an enzyme that plays a key role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.
  17. How do alpha-blockers work in hypertension?
    • Alpha-blockers block the effects of norepinephrine, leading to vasodilation and reduced peripheral resistance.
  18. Name an alpha-blocker used in hypertension treatment.
  19. What is the importance of monitoring potassium levels in patients on certain antihypertensive medications?
    • Some medications, such as ACE inhibitors and ARBs, can increase potassium levels, leading to hyperkalemia, which can be harmful.
  20. Explain the concept of target organ damage in hypertension.
    • Long-term hypertension can damage organs such as the heart, kidneys, and blood vessels, increasing the risk of cardiovascular events.
  21. Why is it important to individualize antihypertensive treatment?
    • Individualization allows healthcare providers to consider factors such as age, comorbidities, and patient preferences when choosing the most suitable medication.
  22. How do you manage a patient with resistant hypertension?
    • Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure that remains elevated despite the use of three different antihypertensive medications. Management may involve optimizing lifestyle modifications and considering referral to a specialist.
  23. Discuss the concept of blood pressure variability.
    • Blood pressure variability refers to fluctuations in blood pressure levels over time. It may have implications for cardiovascular outcomes and treatment strategies.
  24. What are the potential risks of abruptly stopping antihypertensive medication?
    • Abrupt discontinuation can lead to rebound hypertension or worsening of blood pressure control, especially with certain drug classes like beta-blockers.
  25. How does age influence the choice of antihypertensive medications?
  26. Discuss the impact of ethnicity on antihypertensive treatment response.
    • There may be variations in response to antihypertensive medications among different ethnic groups, highlighting the importance of personalized treatment.
  27. What is the role of nitric oxide in blood pressure regulation?
    • Nitric oxide is a vasodilator that helps regulate blood vessel tone and blood pressure.
  28. How does the sympathetic nervous system contribute to hypertension?
    • Increased sympathetic activity can lead to vasoconstriction and increased heart rate, contributing to elevated blood pressure.
  29. What is the role of aldosterone in hypertension?
    • Aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands, promotes sodium and water retention, contributing to increased blood volume and elevated blood pressure.
  30. How can antihypertensive drugs impact sexual function?

 

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