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Viva Questions and Answers related to Mouth, Pharynx, and Larynx

  1. What are the functions of the mouth?
    • The mouth is responsible for ingestion, chewing, tasting, and initiating digestion through saliva production.
  1. Name the primary structures of the pharynx.
    • The primary structures of the pharynx are the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.
  1. What is the function of the epiglottis?
    • The epiglottis prevents food and liquids from entering the trachea during swallowing by covering the glottis.
  1. What are the tonsils, and where are they located?
    • Tonsils are lymphoid tissues located in the pharynx. They include the palatine tonsils, lingual tonsils, and pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids).
  1. Define deglutition.
    • Deglutition is the act of swallowing, which involves the movement of food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach.
  1. What is the uvula, and what is its function?
    • The uvula is a small, fleshy structure hanging down from the soft palate. Its function includes preventing food from entering the nasal cavity during swallowing and aiding in speech articulation. Viva Questions and Answers Related to Osteology
  1. Name the salivary glands and their locations.
    • The major salivary glands are the parotid glands (located near the ears), submandibular glands (located under the jaw), and sublingual glands (located under the tongue).
  1. What is the composition of saliva?
    • Saliva contains water, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate), enzymes (amylase, lipase), mucins, and antimicrobial substances.
  1. What is the function of saliva?
  1. Describe the structure and function of the tongue.
    • The tongue is a muscular organ covered with papillae (taste buds). It helps in speech articulation, taste perception, mastication, and swallowing.
  1. What is the role of the pharyngeal muscles during swallowing?
    • Pharyngeal muscles contract sequentially to propel food from the pharynx into the esophagus while preventing entry into the airway.
  1. Explain the role of the larynx in respiration and phonation.
    • The larynx contains the vocal cords and plays a crucial role in phonation (voice production) and protecting the lower airway during swallowing.
  1. What are the cartilages of the larynx?
  1. Define phonation.
    • Phonation refers to the production of sound by the vibration of the vocal cords in the larynx during speech.
  1. What is the laryngeal prominence commonly known as?
    • The laryngeal prominence is commonly known as the Adam’s apple and is more prominent in males due to hormonal differences.
  1. What is the glottis?
    • The glottis is the opening between the vocal cords in the larynx through which air passes during breathing and sound production.
  1. Describe the process of speech production.
    • Speech production involves the coordination of the respiratory system (breathing), phonatory system (vocal cords), and articulatory system (tongue, lips, palate) to produce intelligible speech sounds.
  1. What are the functions of the vocal cords?
    • The vocal cords regulate airflow, vibrate to produce sound during phonation, and close during swallowing to protect the airway.
  1. Name the intrinsic muscles of the larynx.
  1. Explain the mechanism of coughing and its significance.
    • Coughing involves a forceful expulsion of air from the lungs to clear the airways of irritants, mucus, or foreign particles, playing a vital role in maintaining respiratory health.
  1. What is the role of the pharyngeal reflex (gag reflex)?
    • The pharyngeal reflex protects the airway by eliciting a gag response when the back of the throat is stimulated, preventing the entry of foreign objects into the pharynx.
  1. Define dysphagia and mention its causes.
    • Dysphagia refers to difficulty swallowing and can be caused by conditions such as neurological disorders, structural abnormalities, or muscular dysfunction.
  1. How is the voice affected in laryngitis?
    • Laryngitis, inflammation of the larynx, can lead to hoarseness or loss of voice due to swelling of the vocal cords and impaired phonation.
  1. What are the functions of the nasal cavity?
    • The nasal cavity warms, humidifies, and filters incoming air, houses olfactory receptors for smell, and resonates sound during speech.
  1. Explain the role of the epiglottis in swallowing.
  1. What are the three pairs of salivary glands?
    • The three pairs of salivary glands are the parotid glands, submandibular glands, and sublingual glands.
  1. What is the primary function of the parotid glands?
    • The parotid glands secrete saliva rich in enzymes, particularly amylase, which begins the digestion of starches in the mouth.
  1. How does the tongue contribute to speech production?
    • The tongue plays a crucial role in articulating speech sounds by moving against the palate, teeth, and lips to produce specific phonemes.
  1. What is the significance of the hard palate?
  1. Describe the role of the pharynx in the digestive and respiratory systems.
    • The pharynx serves as a common pathway for food and air, with different mechanisms (swallowing for food, breathing for air) to ensure proper passage and prevent aspiration.
  1. What are the functions of the larynx in addition to sound production?
    • The larynx also acts as a protective mechanism during swallowing by closing off the airway, preventing food or liquids from entering the trachea.
  1. How does the uvula contribute to speech and swallowing?
  1. What is the role of the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx?
    • The arytenoid cartilages are essential for vocal cord movement and tension, contributing to the control and modulation of pitch and volume during phonation.
  1. Define aspiration and its implications.
    • Aspiration is the inhalation of foreign objects (such as food or liquids) into the airways, which can lead to respiratory complications, such as aspiration pneumonia.
  1. How does the larynx protect the airway during swallowing?
    • The larynx closes the glottis and elevates to meet the epiglottis during swallowing, forming a barrier to prevent food or liquids from entering the trachea.
  1. What is the role of the cricoid cartilage in the larynx?
    • The cricoid cartilage provides structural support to the larynx and serves as an attachment point for muscles involved in vocal cord movement and swallowing.
  1. Explain the significance of the vocal cords in speech production.
    • The vocal cords vibrate when air passes through them during exhalation, producing sound waves that are shaped by the articulatory system to create speech sounds.
  1. How does the soft palate contribute to swallowing and speech?
    • The soft palate rises during swallowing to close off the nasopharynx, preventing food from entering the nasal cavity, and also plays a role in speech sounds like nasal consonants.
  1. Describe the process of mastication.
    • Mastication, or chewing, involves the mechanical breakdown of food by the teeth and mixing it with saliva to form a bolus that can be easily swallowed.
  1. What is the role of saliva in the digestive process?
  1. What are the primary muscles involved in swallowing?
    • The primary muscles involved in swallowing are the tongue, pharyngeal muscles, and esophageal muscles, which work together to move food from the mouth to the stomach.
  1. How does the gag reflex protect the airway?
    • The gag reflex is a protective mechanism triggered by stimulation of the pharynx, causing a reflexive contraction of muscles to prevent foreign objects from entering the airway.
  1. What is the role of the sublingual glands in saliva production?
    • The sublingual glands secrete saliva rich in mucins, which lubricate the oral cavity and aid in the initial breakdown of food during chewing.
  1. Explain the difference between voluntary and involuntary phases of swallowing.
  1. How does the larynx assist in producing different pitches of sound?
    • The larynx adjusts the tension and length of the vocal cords to change the pitch of sound, with higher tension producing higher pitches and vice versa.
  1. What role does the hyoid bone play in swallowing and speech?
    • The hyoid bone serves as an attachment point for muscles involved in swallowing and speech, providing stability and mobility to the larynx and tongue.
  1. What is the significance of the mucous membranes in the oral cavity?
  1. How does the larynx contribute to coughing and clearing the airways?
    • The larynx closes during coughing to build up pressure in the respiratory tract, followed by a forceful release of air to expel mucus or irritants from the airways.
  1. Describe the role of the cricothyroid muscle in the larynx.
    • The cricothyroid muscle adjusts the tension of the vocal cords, contributing to changes in pitch and fine control of voice modulation during speech.
  1. What are the common symptoms of laryngeal disorders?
    • Common symptoms of laryngeal disorders include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, pain or discomfort in the throat, changes in voice quality, and breathing difficulties.

 

 

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