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Viva Questions and Answers Related to Osteology

  1. What is osteology? Osteology is the study of bones, their structure, function, development, and pathology.
  2. What are the functions of bones? Bones provide support and structure to the body, protect internal organs, assist in movement, store minerals like calcium and phosphorus, and produce blood cells in the bone marrow.
  3. Name the two types of bone tissue. The two types of bone tissue are compact bone and spongy (cancellous) bone.
  4. What is the difference between compact bone and spongy bone? Compact bone is dense and forms the outer layer of bones, providing strength and support. Spongy bone is less dense and found inside bones, providing flexibility and cushioning.
  5. What is the periosteum? The periosteum is a dense membrane that covers the outer surface of bones. It contains blood vessels, nerves, and cells involved in bone growth and repair.
  6. What is ossification? Ossification is the process of bone formation, which can occur through intramembranous ossification (formation of flat bones) or endochondral ossification (formation of long bones).
  7. What are the major bones of the human body? The major bones of the human body include the skull, spine (vertebrae), ribs, sternum, pelvis, and long bones of the arms and legs.
  8. What is the axial skeleton? The axial skeleton includes the skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum. It forms the central axis of the body and protects vital organs. Viva Question and Answers in Scalp and Face
  9. What is the appendicular skeleton? The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the limbs (arms and legs), shoulder girdle (scapula and clavicle), and pelvic girdle (hip bones). It supports movement and attachment of muscles.
  10. How many vertebrae are there in the human spine? There are typically 33 vertebrae in the human spine, including 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral (fused into the sacrum), and 4 coccygeal (fused into the coccyx).
  11. What is the difference between true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs? True ribs (1-7) are directly attached to the sternum via costal cartilage. False ribs (8-12) either attach indirectly to the sternum or do not attach at all. Floating ribs (11-12) do not attach to the sternum.
  12. What is the function of the hyoid bone? The hyoid bone supports the tongue and serves as an attachment point for muscles involved in swallowing and speech. Viva Question and Answers Related to Instruments Used in Periodontics
  13. What is a fontanelle? A fontanelle is a soft spot on a baby’s skull where bones have not yet fused. These allow for the baby’s skull to be flexible during birth and early growth.
  14. What are the major bones of the lower limb? The major bones of the lower limb include the femur (thigh bone), tibia and fibula (lower leg bones), patella (kneecap), tarsal bones (ankle), metatarsal bones (foot), and phalanges (toes).
  15. What are the major bones of the upper limb? The major bones of the upper limb include the humerus (upper arm bone), radius and ulna (forearm bones), carpals (wrist bones), metacarpals (hand), and phalanges (fingers).
  16. What is a joint? A joint is a point where two or more bones meet. Joints allow for movement and provide stability to the skeleton.
  17. Name the three types of joints based on their movement. The three types of joints based on movement are synarthrosis (immovable), amphiarthrosis (slightly movable), and diarthrosis (freely movable).
  18. Give an example of a synarthrosis joint. An example of a synarthrosis joint is the sutures between the bones of the skull.
  19. Give an example of an amphiarthrosis joint. An example of an amphiarthrosis joint is the pubic symphysis, which connects the two hip bones in the pelvis.
  20. Give an example of a diarthrosis joint. An example of a diarthrosis joint is the knee joint, which allows for a wide range of movements.
  21. What are ligaments? Ligaments are tough bands of connective tissue that connect bones to other bones, providing stability to joints.
  22. What are tendons? Tendons are tough cords of connective tissue that attach muscles to bones, allowing for movement by transmitting muscle contractions to the bones. Viva Question and Answers Related to Sterilization of Dental Instruments
  23. What is the difference between a fracture and a dislocation? A fracture is a break or crack in a bone, while a dislocation is the displacement of a bone from its normal position at a joint.
  24. What is osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by low bone density and increased risk of fractures due to bone weakening.
  25. What is osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility.
  26. What is a stress fracture? A stress fracture is a small crack or severe bruising within a bone, typically caused by repetitive stress or overuse.
  27. What is the function of the vertebral column? The vertebral column supports the body, protects the spinal cord, allows for movement, and provides attachment points for muscles and ligaments.
  28. What are the curvatures of the vertebral column? The curvatures of the vertebral column include the cervical curvature (concave anteriorly), thoracic curvature (convex anteriorly), lumbar curvature (concave anteriorly), and sacral curvature (convex anteriorly).
  29. What is scoliosis? Scoliosis is a lateral curvature of the spine, often accompanied by rotation of the vertebrae, leading to an “S” or “C” shaped curve.
  30. What is kyphosis? Kyphosis is an excessive outward curvature of the thoracic spine, leading to a rounded or hunched back appearance.
  31. What is lordosis? Lordosis is an excessive inward curvature of the lumbar spine or neck, causing the lower back or neck to sway abnormally.
  32. What is the pelvic girdle? The pelvic girdle is a ring of bones formed by the hip bones (ilium, ischium, and pubis) that connects the spine to the lower limbs.
  33. What is the acetabulum? The acetabulum is a cup-shaped socket on the hip bone that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint. Viva Questions and Answers Related to the Matrix Technique in Dentistry
  34. What is the difference between the male and female pelvis? The female pelvis is generally wider and shallower than the male pelvis, with a larger pelvic outlet and a wider subpubic angle to accommodate childbirth.
  35. What are the functions of the pelvic girdle? The pelvic girdle supports the weight of the upper body, provides attachment points for muscles and ligaments, protects internal organs, and facilitates movement of the lower limbs.
  36. What are the major bones of the skull? The major bones of the skull include the frontal bone, parietal bones, temporal bones, occipital bone, sphenoid bone, and ethmoid bone.
  37. What is the mastoid process? The mastoid process is a bony projection on the temporal bone located behind the ear, serving as an attachment point for neck muscles.
  38. What is the function of the sphenoid bone? The sphenoid bone contributes to the structure of the skull, forms part of the eye sockets (orbit), and houses the pituitary gland in the sella turcica.
  39. What is the foramen magnum? The foramen magnum is a large opening at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes to connect with the brain. Viva Question and Answers Related to Metallurgy in Dentistry
  40. What are fontanelles? Fontanelles are soft spots on a baby’s skull where bones have not yet fused, allowing for growth and flexibility during birth and early development.
  41. What is the zygomatic arch? The zygomatic arch is a bony bridge formed by the zygomatic bone and the temporal bone, contributing to the structure of the cheek and the attachment of jaw muscles.
  42. What is the function of the nasal conchae? The nasal conchae are scroll-like bones in the nasal cavity that increase the surface area, humidify and filter air, and improve airflow during breathing.
  43. What are the paranasal sinuses? The paranasal sinuses are air-filled cavities within the skull bones (frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary) that reduce the weight of the skull, produce mucus, and resonate sound.
  44. What is the function of the mandible? The mandible (lower jawbone) supports the lower teeth, allows for chewing and speaking, and serves as an attachment point for muscles involved in jaw movement.
  45. What is a maxilla? The maxilla is the upper jawbone that houses the upper teeth, forms part of the nasal cavity and orbit, and contributes to facial structure. Viva Question and Answers Related to Polishing Agents Used in Dentistry
  46. What are alveolar processes? Alveolar processes are bony ridges on the maxilla and mandible that support and anchor the teeth via periodontal ligaments.
  47. What is the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)? The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the joint between the mandible and the temporal bone of the skull, allowing for jaw movement during chewing, speaking, and yawning.
  48. What is the function of the clavicle? The clavicle (collarbone) supports the shoulder, connects the arm to the trunk, and provides protection to underlying blood vessels and nerves.
  49. What is the olecranon process? The olecranon process is a bony projection on the ulna (forearm bone) that forms the bony tip of the elbow and serves as an attachment point for muscles.
  50. What is the function of the patella? The patella (kneecap) protects the knee joint, improves mechanical efficiency during movements like running and jumping, and stabilizes the knee by increasing leverage for thigh muscles. Viva Question and Answers Related to Thyroid Glands

 

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