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 Viva questions Related to Diseases of Lymph Nodes

  1. What are lymph nodes, and what is their function?
    • Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped structures that play a vital role in the immune system by filtering lymph fluid and trapping foreign particles such as bacteria and viruses.
  1. What is lymphadenopathy?
    • Lymphadenopathy refers to the enlargement of lymph nodes, which can occur due to various reasons, including infections, inflammation, and cancer.
  1. What are the common causes of lymphadenopathy?
    • Common causes include bacterial and viral infections (e.g., strep throat, mononucleosis), autoimmune disorders, lymphoma, and metastatic cancer.
  1. How do you clinically assess enlarged lymph nodes?
    • Clinically assess lymph nodes by evaluating their size, tenderness, consistency, mobility, and associated symptoms such as fever or weight loss.
  1. What is lymphadenitis?
  1. What is the difference between lymphadenopathy and lymphadenitis?
    • Lymphadenopathy refers to lymph node enlargement, while lymphadenitis specifically refers to inflammation of lymph nodes.
  1. What are the characteristics of benign (reactive) lymphadenopathy?
    • Benign lymphadenopathy is usually associated with localized, tender, and soft lymph node enlargement due to infections or inflammatory conditions.
  1. What are the characteristics of malignant lymphadenopathy?
    • Malignant lymphadenopathy often presents with painless, firm, fixed, and progressively enlarging lymph nodes, which may be associated with systemic symptoms like weight loss and night sweats.
  1. How do you differentiate between reactive and malignant lymphadenopathy?
    • Differential features include the pattern of lymph node involvement, associated symptoms, presence of systemic illness, and response to treatment.
  1. What are the primary sites for lymphoma?
    • Lymphoma can originate from lymph nodes (nodal lymphoma) or lymphoid tissues in other organs such as the spleen, thymus, or bone marrow (extranodal lymphoma).
  1. What are the common types of Hodgkin lymphoma?
    • Common types include nodular sclerosis, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte-rich, and lymphocyte-depleted subtypes.
  1. What distinguishes Hodgkin lymphoma from non-Hodgkin lymphoma?
    • Hodgkin lymphoma is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, whereas non-Hodgkin lymphoma comprises a diverse group of lymphoid malignancies without Reed-Sternberg cells.
  1. What are the risk factors for developing lymphoma?
  1. How do you diagnose lymphoma?
    • Diagnosis involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (e.g., CT scan, PET scan), biopsy of lymph nodes or affected tissues, and immunophenotyping.
  1. What is Castleman disease?
    • Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by benign growth of lymphoid tissue, which can present as localized or multicentric disease.
  1. What is Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease?
    • Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, also known as histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is a self-limiting condition characterized by enlarged, tender lymph nodes with necrosis and histiocytic infiltration.
  1. How do you manage benign lymphadenopathy?
    • Management includes treating the underlying cause, such as antibiotics for bacterial infections or anti-inflammatory medications for inflammatory conditions.
  1. What is lymphedema?
    • Lymphedema is swelling that occurs due to the accumulation of lymphatic fluid, often caused by obstruction or damage to lymphatic vessels, commonly seen after lymph node dissection in cancer surgery.
  1. What are the complications of untreated lymphedema?
    • Complications may include chronic swelling, skin changes (e.g., thickening, discoloration), recurrent infections (cellulitis), and impaired limb function.
  1. How do you manage lymphedema?
    • Management involves compression therapy, physical therapy (e.g., lymphatic drainage techniques), skincare, and lifestyle modifications to reduce swelling and prevent complications.
  1. What is lymphangiography?
    • Lymphangiography is a diagnostic procedure used to visualize lymphatic vessels and identify abnormalities such as lymphatic obstruction or leakage.
  1. What is lymphadenectomy?
    • Lymphadenectomy is the surgical removal of lymph nodes, commonly performed in cancer staging and treatment.
  1. What is lymphocytosis?
    • Lymphocytosis refers to an elevated number of lymphocytes in the blood, which can occur in various conditions, including infections, autoimmune diseases, and lymphoid malignancies.
  1. What is lymphopenia?
    • Lymphopenia is a decrease in the number of lymphocytes in the blood, often seen in conditions such as HIV/AIDS, immune deficiencies, and certain medications.
  1. What are the features of granulomatous lymphadenitis?
  1. What is lymphoid hyperplasia?
    • Lymphoid hyperplasia refers to an increase in the number of lymphoid cells within lymphoid tissues, which can occur in response to infections, autoimmune disorders, or as a reactive process.
  1. What are the common sites for lymphadenopathy in tuberculosis?
    • Common sites include cervical lymph nodes (scrofula), mediastinal lymph nodes, and abdominal lymph nodes, depending on the route of infection.
  1. What is lymphangioma?
    • Lymphangioma is a benign tumor-like growth of lymphatic vessels, often seen in children and commonly located in the neck (cystic hygroma) or other areas.
  1. How do you differentiate between lymphoma and metastatic carcinoma in lymph nodes?
    • Differential features include histological patterns, immunophenotyping (e.g., CD markers), genetic studies, and clinical context (primary tumor site, systemic symptoms).
  1. What is lymphocytic infiltration?
    • Lymphocytic infiltration refers to the presence of lymphocytes within tissues, often seen in inflammatory conditions, autoimmune disorders, and some types of cancer.
  1. What is the role of lymph nodes in cancer staging?
    • Lymph nodes are important in cancer staging as their involvement can indicate the spread of cancer beyond the primary tumor site, influencing prognosis and treatment decisions.
  1. What is lymphomatoid granulomatosis?
    • Lymphomatoid granulomatosis is a rare Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by angiocentric and angiodestructive granulomas, commonly involving the lungs and central nervous system.
  1. What is lymphoplasmacytic lymphadenopathy?
  1. What is Rosai-Dorfman disease?
    • Rosai-Dorfman disease, also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, is a rare disorder characterized by massive lymphadenopathy with histiocyte proliferation and emperipolesis.
  1. What are Warthin tumors?
    • Warthin tumors, also called papillary cystadenomas lymphomatosum, are benign salivary gland tumors commonly located in the parotid gland and often associated with smoking.
  1. How do you differentiate between reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphoma?
    • Differential features include the architecture of lymphoid tissue, cellular atypia, mitotic activity, immunophenotyping, and clinical progression.
  1. What is lymphatic filariasis?
    • Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic infection caused by filarial worms transmitted through mosquito bites, leading to lymphatic dysfunction, lymphedema, and elephantiasis.
  1. What is lymphadenopathy syndrome?
    • Lymphadenopathy syndrome refers to generalized lymph node enlargement associated with various infectious and systemic diseases, including HIV/AIDS and autoimmune disorders.
  1. What are the histopathological features of lymphoma?
  1. What is lymphangiectasia?
    • Lymphangiectasia is a condition characterized by dilated lymphatic vessels, which can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (intestinal lymphangiectasia) or skin (cutaneous lymphangiectasia).
  1. What is lymphangiitis?
    • Lymphangiitis is inflammation of lymphatic vessels, often secondary to infections, leading to red streaks on the skin, swelling, and tenderness along lymphatic channels.
  1. What is lymphangiosarcoma?
    • Lymphangiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor arising from lymphatic vessels, commonly associated with chronic lymphedema (Stewart-Treves syndrome) following mastectomy or radiation therapy.
  1. How do you assess lymph node involvement in cancer staging?
  1. What is lymphocytic thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis)?
    • Lymphocytic thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism, goiter, and thyroid dysfunction.
  1. What is lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia?
    • Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia is a type of interstitial lung disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the lung parenchyma, leading to respiratory symptoms and pulmonary fibrosis.
  1. What is lymphadenopathy associated with Kawasaki disease?
    • Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile illness in children characterized by mucocutaneous inflammation, coronary artery involvement, and lymphadenopathy, particularly in the cervical region.
  1. What is lymphocytic myocarditis?
  1. What is lymphocytic gastritis?
    • Lymphocytic gastritis is an inflammatory condition of the stomach characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of gastric mucosa, commonly associated with autoimmune disorders such as celiac disease.
  1. What is lymphocytic colitis?
    • Lymphocytic colitis is a type of microscopic colitis characterized by chronic diarrhea, inflammation, and lymphocytic infiltration of the colonic mucosa, often diagnosed on biopsy.
  1. How do you differentiate between lymphocytic and granulomatous diseases affecting lymph nodes?
    • Differential features include histopathological patterns (e.g., lymphocytic infiltration vs. granuloma formation), clinical context, associated symptoms, and response to treatment.

 

 

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