What is Hyperplasia? Causes,Symptoms and Treatment
Hyperplasia also called as Facial Hemihypertrophy. It is a rare developmental anomaly characterised by asymmetric overgrowth of one or more body parts. Hemihyperplasia can be an isolated finding, but it also may be associated with a variety of malformation syndromes.
Malformation syndromes associated with Hemihyperplasia
- Beckwith-weidemann syndromes
- Klippel-trenaunay-Weber syndrome
- Epidermal nevus syndrome
- Proteus syndrome
- Segmental odontomaxillary dysplasia
Classification of Hemihyperplasia
- Complex Hemihyperplasia : it is the involvement of half of the body (at least one arm and one leg);affected parts may be contra lateral or ipsileral
- Simple Hemihyperplasia: is the involvement o a single limb
- Hemifacial hyperplasia: is the involvement of one side of the face
The cause is unknown, but the condition has been variously ascribed to vascular orlymphaticabnormalities; CNS disturbances and chromosomal abnormalities
Patients affected by this condition exhibit
- an enlargement which is confined to one side of the body
- Unilateral macroglossia
- Premature development and eruption
- An increased size of dentition
- Females are affected somewhat more frequently than males
- Dentition is abnormal in three respects crown size, root size and shape, and rate of development.
- This enlargement may involve any tooth, but seems to occur most frequently in thecuspids, premolars and first molar.
- Permanent teeth on the affected side are often enlarged, although not exceeding 50% increase in size
- The roots of the teeth are sometimes proportionally enlarged but may be short
- The permanent teeth on the affected side develop more rapidly and erupt before their counterparts on the uninvolved side
- Premature shedding of the deciduous teeth
- The bone of the maxilla and mandible is also enlarged, being wider and thicker, sometimes with an ulterior trabecular pattern
- The tongue is commonly involved by the hemihypertrophy and may show a bizarre picture of enlargement of lingual papillaein addition to the general unilateral enlargement and contra lateral displacement
- The buccaneers mucosa frequently appears velvety and may seem to hang in soft,pendulous folds on the affected side
Treatment and Prognosis
There is no specific treatment for this condition other than attempts at cosmetic repair. Cosmetic surgery is advised after cessation of growth. Periodic abdominal ultrasound is recommended to rule out tutors.
Differential Diagnosis:– There are certain diseases of the jaws,such as neurofibromatosis and fibrous dysplasia of the jaws, that may give the clinical appearance of facial hemihypertrophy, but these can usually be differentiated readily by the lack of effect on tooth size and rate of eruption.